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interface reactions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... correspond to specific intermetallic compounds that are found in the aluminum-iron phase diagram. X-ray microanalysis of reaction zone at the aluminum wire/steel screw interface shown in <xref rid="c0049838-f2" ref-type="fig">Fig. 2(a)</xref> Table 1 X-ray microanalysis of reaction zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... not occur during the sintering thermal cycle. It was recommended that the prosthetic manufacturer investigate atmosphere controls for all thermal cycles prior to coating. Adhesion Bonding strength Interface reactions Powder coating Surgical implants ASTM F75 UNS R30075 Surface treatment related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.23 0.66 Inner layer 4.78 6.21 1.13 0.38 0.62 Outer layer … 5.81 … … 0.60 Fig. 2 ( a ) SEM-BSED micrograph of the interface of oxide scale on the inner wall with the substrate, ( b ) higher magnification image of the inset in ( a ); ( c ) EDS spectrum for oxide close...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., the presence of sulfur (5 wt.pct.) at the alloy/crystal interface is indicative of redeposition of copper since copper and nickel are known to diffuse outward through the reaction products. Although no copper sulfide phase was observed, the source of the sulfur at this interface could only have been...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... − C ∞ ) divided by a resistance term: K − 1 ( 1 + K δ D ) Three different cases will be briefly treated. The first case is when K &gt;&gt;&gt; D /δ, that is, when the chemical reaction takes place so rapidly at the solid-solvent interface that the solution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... International , 2002 , p 289 – 311 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517 • Mason P. , Engstrom A. , Agren J. and Hallstrom S. , Simulation of Diffusion in Surface and Interface Reactions , Metals Process Simulation , Vol 22B , ASM Handbook , Furrer D.U. and Semiatin S.L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the exchanger tubes to impose load on seal welds and the shell side cooling water entered the crevice between the tubesheet and the tubes. The cooling water in the crevice caused galvanic reaction and embrittlement of seal welds. Brittle crack opening and crack propagation in seal welds occurred due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cables with MgO as insulator and Inconel 600 as the outer sheath material. An electric current is generated between the core wire and outer sheath by various (n,β), (n,γ,e) and (β,e) reactions. The signal from the emitter cable (produced by one or more of these reactions) is then carried to an amplifier...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in corrosion mechanisms that complicate reaction kinetics and explanation of the reactions that occur. The reaction kinetics of high-temperature corrosion reactions are usually classified as linear, parabolic, logarithmic, or cubic ( Ref 1 ). However, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion processes can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... wear test WEAR is defined as surface damage with gradual removal of material from solid surfaces by abrasives or a counterface in relative motion. Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment, involving metal dissolution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... locations. The direction of these cracks sometimes changed abruptly at weld bead interfaces, where the crack followed the dendritic orientation of the new bead ( Fig. 10 ). Fig. 10 Micrograph showing change of crack path along weld bead interface. Etched in electrolytic nitric acid. 20.5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and continuous while the outer layer is thinner, porous and powdery in texture. Counter currents of ions set up between the metal surface and the aqueous environment are responsible for the growth of the oxide layers ( Ref 2 ). Reactions at the metal/oxide interface result in the growth of the compact Fe 3 O 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... mainly of chromium oxide with islands of iron/nickel sulfide and chromium sulfide. At the interface between the scale and the base metal chromium sulfide predominated ( Fig. 3 ). The intergranular scale consisted mainly of chromium sulfide with some chromium oxide ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 3 X-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... that the most fool-proof method of preventing such failures without sacrificing any notched yield strength is to age the bolts for one more hour at 1,000 F. Anodized aluminum in the flange interface will minimize corrosion — it will also inhibit galvanic corrosion only if the bolts are inserted carefully...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the di-oxygen molecules within the interface and the reaction rate through the oxidation process of the surface metal exposed by the friction process ( Ref 71 ). Obviously, the transition from pure abrasive to composite adhesive-abrasive wear mechanisms modifies the global fretting wear response...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... known as crevice corrosion, occurs at the faying surfaces of the brazed joint. Interface corrosion is a metallurgical and chemical reaction that develops in brazements of stainless steels, especially those of the 400 series, when these materials are brazed with some of the low-temperature silver braze...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of processes, such as ammonia, methanol, and hydrogen production. These are gas- or oil-burning furnaces that contain heat-resistant tubing in which high-temperature reactions occur in the presence of a catalyst. The tubing construction follows a continuous arrangement, as shown in Fig. 1 , typically reaching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-assisted slow crack growth until final fracture. Thread roots adjacent to the dominant crack also contained cracks that were initiated in the carburized case but arrested at the case/core interface. Figure 6 shows a crack that initiated at the carburized thread root but subsequently arrested...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... nights. Close examination of the threaded interface ( Fig. 2 ) clearly indicated use of this adhesive, which is unacceptable for oxygen systems. Fig. 2 Closeup view of brass-to-steel joint, showing heavy wrench marks on nipple and puddled adhesive at threaded joint. 4.6×. Evidence of spikes...