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interface migration

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... initiation. This phase was not present at the interface, probably because of carbon migration into the weld, as evidenced by the decarburization and graphitization of the base material. Finally, the differential thermal expansion of the carbon and stainless steels produced the necessary internal stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... serves as an excellent site for crack nucleation, especially in this alloy, which is sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. As a tensile load is applied, a triaxial stress field is created in the vicinity of the defect. Hydrogen atoms, present as absorbed hydrogen in the alloy, migrate toward...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... by the formation, growth and coalescence of cavities along grain boundaries. These voids increasingly form at the interface between the continuous grain boundary and the matrix during the steady state creep period and at the onset of the tertiary creep, the voids are found to easily joint together to form long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... interface ( Ref 14 ). Figure 7 schematically illustrates the spreading of molten solder on a substrate and the balance of surface tension force at equilibrium. The angle between the solder ball and the solder target surface is defined by the balance between the surface tension of various surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the compact Fe 3 O 4 . The outer porous oxide is formed Fe +2 ions migrating outward react with OH − ions at the oxide/solution interface to give Fe(OH) 2 , which then converts to Fe 3 O 4 as indicated above. The different conditions under which the two magnetite layers are formed result in their different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Due to degradation from aging (thermal, ultraviolet and visible light, ozone, rain, nuclear radiation). May be caused by inadequate stabilizer/antioxidant content or their loss by migration, extraction, or evaporation Embrittlement due to loss of plasticizer or water in service Fracture due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... extensive cracks. In peeling the aluminum from the plywood it was immediately apparent that the aluminum was failing due to corrosion at the plywood-aluminum interface. It was also observed that wherever corrosion occurred, there was little or no evidence of the adhesive used to bond the aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... coatings. Failure Modes of PVD-TiN Coatings The structure of TiN coating deposited by various PVD processes is generally columnar with some evidence of equiaxial grains near the interface ( Ref 50 , 51 ). These coatings have shown good bonding with various substrate steels, for example, M50, 440C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., contamination, trace metal analysis What is Surface Analysis? The “surface” of a sample can mean different things to different people. To those performing analytical tests at the air/specimen interface of samples, the word surface can be anywhere from the top monolayer to as deep as several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the steel. The iron cations migrate in the opposite direction and extend the magnetite film at its interface with the water. The magnetite which develops at this location is weakly coherent and shows inferior adhesion under the conditions of flow which obtain in a boiler tube and is not usually found...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sliding pair, except in few instances, usually produces undesirable high friction and high wear conditions due to enhanced adhesion between the polymer. Also, poor conductivity of the polymers results in elevated temperature at the polymer/polymer interface, leading to melting and rapid wear. Therefore...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the bulk polymer largely depends on the polarities of the polymer and the liquid, as well as on the surface tension of the liquid (thus the surface energy of the polymer) ( Ref 46 ). Many polymers plasticize in the presence of water and some chemical liquids because liquid molecules can easily migrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... resistance to flow of direct current, usually 10 15 to 10 20 Ω ⸳ cm compared to 10 –6 Ω ⸳ cm for copper. Electrical conductivity in normally insulating polymers results from the migration of ionic impurities and is affected by the mobility of these ionic species. Generally, plasticizers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., the failure of a medical device is not necessarily equivalent to a faulty or defective device; further, device failure does not necessarily mean fracture. Device failures can include any device-related negative outcome, such as aseptic loosening, dislocation, infection, perforation, migration, or other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of isothermal treatment of SAF 2205 duplex stainless steel on migration of δ/γ interface boundary and growth of austenite . J. Alloys Compd. , 285 , 156 – 161 ( 1999 ) 10.1016/S0925-8388(99)00014-6 4. Chen T.H. , Yang J.R. : Effects of solution treatment and continuous cooling on σ-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis Overview of Surface Analysis What Is Surface Analysis? The “surface” of a sample can mean different things to different people. To those performing analytical tests at the air/specimen interface of samples, the word surface can be anywhere from the top monolayer to as deep as several...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is the thickness of the boundary layer in the liquid phase; C sat is the concentration of the dissolving solid, in the liquid, at the interface; C ∞ is the concentration of the dissolving phase in the bulk of the liquid; and D is the effective diffusion coefficient in the solution for the exchange...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by precipitates that either grow slowly within the scale or at the scale-substrate interface, restricting the growth of a scaling constituent ( Ref 2 ). Growth stresses in the scale can cause development of cracks in the scale parallel to the substrate, leading to logarithmic or inverse logarithmic kinetics from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., flakes, shrinkage cavities, laminations, and other similar discontinuities that produce reflective interfaces. X-ray or gamma-ray radiography is used to identify defects in the weld joints as well as to assess the overall soundness of the component/part. Mechanical Testing The mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tubes are not chosen for thermal conductivity but for strength, especially creep or stress-rupture strength. Therefore, the temperature gradient through the steel is not controlled by design but accepted as a consequence of material selection. Third, at the fluid interface with the inside-diameter...