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insulating materials

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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 2 Typical polarizations of insulating materials. Source: Ref 8 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article addresses electrical testing and characterization of plastics and presents a number of techniques for evaluating the electrical properties of insulating materials, with a special focus on plastics, accompanied by a list of the electrical properties of different types...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., the insulating material should he analyzed. If chloride ions are found in amounts greater than 20 ppm, another insulation material containing lower levels should be used. Also, the tie rods should be positioned outside the insulation, where the full strength of the steel alloy can be utilized. Selected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... regularly to guard against chlorides. However, the insulation material between the cone and its inner liner was known to contain leachable chlorides. Chlorides will not cause SCC unless an aqueous phase is present; therefore, the temperature of the outlet stream must have dropped below the dewpoint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and performed. These included chemical testing of the materials in use, of the insulation around the copper pipes, testing of corrosion products, identification of the type of insulation used, visual and stereomicroscopic examinations, metallographic examinations, microbiological testing of corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... were applied to remove the convergent insulation from the nozzle shells. The process was made difficult by the excellent EPON 934 bonds between the MXSE-55 and the MX-2646 convergent nozzle liner. Figure 2 shows reassembled pieces of the cut-off convergent liner material. The dark patches indicate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Several glass wool insulation sections from a heat-treat furnace showed visible, but only cosmetic discoloration. EDS showed the presence of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in the nondiscolored region, and these elements are consistent with glass wool. Relatively high levels of chromium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... into pieces. Some of the packings were also damaged. Pertinent Specifications The heaters use nichrome wire as the heating element, magnesia powder as insulating material, and type 304L stainless steel as sheathing material. The heaters were in coils of various lengths (5 to 30 m, or 15 to 100 ft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ambient and process is required ( Ref 12 ). While insulation is critical, it can create a problem for corrosion by creating crevice conditions where moisture or corrosive chemicals can become trapped between the insulation and the process material (e.g., a steel pipe and mineral wool insulation), known...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the cracked surface, and samples of the insulation near the pitted areas were removed for chemical analysis. Metallography The purpose of field replication is to obtain a replica of the material microstructure without destructive testing. The type 316 stainless steel demonstrated an ordinary structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by ensuring the integrity of the thermoset polymeric seal, and by barrier coating the wall of the spar cavity with an insulating material. Alternate methods of encapsulating the lead wool would also have prevented the galvanic corrosion, corrosion pitting, and resulting fatigue failure. Selected References...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is better adapted to running conducting and semiconducting materials, while both conducting and insulating materials are readily analyzed by XPS and TOF-SIMS. Auger Electron Spectroscopy Auger electron spectroscopy is a surface analysis technique used to determine the elemental composition of the top...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... insulation were examined by SEM/EDS. The EDS elemental chemical analysis of the reddish brown debris reveals high levels of carbon, oxygen, chlorine, iron, and chromium. This is consistent with corrosion products and perhaps an organic material that could originate in the glue adhering the foam insulation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be of concern. Modern surface analysis equipment uses low-energy electron and/or ion beams to help neutralize surface charge buildup during analysis. In general, XPS and TOF-SIMS can readily analyze conductive materials, semiconductors, and insulators with this neutralization scheme. The AES analysis of fully...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0006897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract The small cable (drop wire) providing service for individual subscribers from the aerial plant is held in place by a clamp made of a tin-coated brass body (attached to the cable) and a copper tail wire loop (attached to a galvanized steel hook or to a porcelain insulator). The tail...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The self-powered flux detectors used in some nuclear reactors are Pt or V-cored co-axial cables with MgO as an insulator and Inconel 600 as the outer sheath material. The detectors are designed to operate in a He atmosphere; to maximize the conduction of heat (generated from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... a week by transgranular SCC. Annealed type 430 ferritic stainless steel was subsequently suggested to prevent further failures. Basic oxygen furnaces Materials selection Precipitator wires 304 UNS S30400 430 UNS 54300 1008 UNS G10080 Corrosion fatigue Stress-corrosion cracking...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 11 Fracture surface of a porcelain insulator, which broke during cutting with a diamond saw. Fracture moved from right to left. Mist and velocity hackle and Wallner lines are readily seen in this fine-grained material. Camera image; picture width ∼20 mm. Source: Ref 3 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...-corrosion cracking (SCC) that initiated at the exterior surface. Contaminant material containing chlorine, which may have leached from the insulation, combined with the inherent susceptibility of the base material and residual stresses from fabrication and welding. These factors combined synergistically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the mold surface was the result of localized overheating caused by splashing of molten metal on the bore surface near the spigot end. In addition, the mold-wash compound (a bentonite mixture) near the spigot end was too thin to provide the proper degree of insulation and to prevent molten metal from...