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instrumentation

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 Trace on cathode ray tube of ultrasonic test instrument More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 16 Comparison of static ( K Ic ), dynamic ( K Id ), and dynamic-instrumented ( K idi ) impact fracture toughness of precracked specimens of ASTM A 533 grade B steel, as a function of test temperature. The stress-intensity rate was about 1.098 × 10 4 MPa m · s −1 (10 4 ksi More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a component or assembly. The article describes the steps required to calibrate instrumentation and to validate stress measurement results. It presents a practical approach to sample selection and specimen preparation, measurement location selection, and measurement depth selection, as well as an outline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An AISI 4340 threaded steel connecting rod that was part of a connecting linkage used between a parachute and an instrumented drop test assembly fractured under high dynamic loading when the assembly was dropped from an airplane. A large flaw that originated from the root of a machined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in failure analysis than the more exact instrumentation employed in SEMs, the technology is advancing and is worthy of note due to its capability for nondestructive analysis and application in the field. This article begins with information on the basis of the x-ray signal. This is followed by information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. The SEM provides the user with an unparalleled ability to observe and quantify the surface of a sample. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of metallic materials. This article highlights the development of SEM technology and describes the operation of basic systems in an SEM, including the electron optical...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 19 Comparison of (a) conventional tungsten filament SEM to (b) field emission instrument. Samples imaged at 10,000× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscopy photo of the surface of a 300-series stainless steel sample obtained from AES instrument. Field of view, 1 μm More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 2 Damage in the front portion of the aircraft. (a) Hole in the external skin on the toilet roof. (b) Caving in of the toilet bowl. Damage in the front portion of the aircraft. (c) Damage to the instrument panel in the cockpit.(d) Hole in the backrest of the pilot's seat, front view. (e More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and specimen geometry), shown in Fig. 1 , illustrates the conventional “point-to-plane” configuration (electrode to specimen). The electrode typically is made of tungsten. The spark stand in modern instrumentation is flushed with argon or (rarely) nitrogen to prevent oxidation effects and allow transmission...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... requirement of 5 kg.M/cm 2 ). Based on the above, the cracked end frame was subjected to instrumental gas analysis and hydrogen gas content was found to be of the order of 22 ppm. Summary and Conclusions A number of Cr-Si-Mn alloy machined end frame steel forgings developed random tiny cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The SEM allows for high-magnification study of surfaces by utilizing electrons instead of visible light. This instrument is equipped with magnetic lenses and coils, which scan the sample surface with electrons (primary electrons) that are emitted from an electron gun through a column...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of the central regions of all 22 cores and tested at various temperatures on an instrumented impact testing apparatus. Representative SEM photos were taken of the fracture modes of the fractured samples. By instrumenting the hammer on this test device, information regarding load versus time can be obtained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the nondiscolored and discolored regions. This technique utilizes X-rays to determine relative concentrations of a given element in a sample. X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube in the instrument, causing the various elements in the target to fluoresce. The X-rays emitted by each element have wavelengths...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and location of the explosion. Circumstances Leading to Failure The flight of the passenger aircraft was uneventful until 20 min before a scheduled landing, at which time an explosion occurred, causing injuries to the crew and damage to the front toilet area and to instruments in the cockpit. However...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and separation between braze and housing. Brazed joints Fatigue cracking Welding defects 347 UNS S34700 Fatigue fracture Joining-related failures A rectangular segment broke from the type 347 stainless steel housing of a pressure-probe assembly used in experimental instrumentation. The pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of silicones, but be sure to avoid having the tape placed in the vicinity of the area of interest on the sample. Sample Types Most solid materials, if they are vacuum compatible and are of the proper geometric size to be accepted into the instrument, can be analyzed by one or more of these surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Chemical characterization of surfaces by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) instrumentation, which is commonly a module integrated with modern scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Before the details of the analytical method are discussed, it should be noted that there are few analytical methods that can be properly performed without knowledge of the intended composition. Most of the analytical methods in use today are instrumental methods whose accuracy depends on calibrations...