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inorganic compounds

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microorganisms accumulate inorganic compounds such as phosphorites, carbonates, silicates, iron, and manganese oxides [ 4 – 8 ]. It is also well known that the kidney stone formation and scale deposition in oral cavity were due to bacterial activity [ 9 ]. Besides, calcium accumulation was also noticed in hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... are emitted, and these energy levels are detected as peaks or lines in the X-ray spectrum. Consequently, the elements that are present in the sample can be determined and, to some degree, quantified as to their relative amount in the sample. This technique is particularly useful for characterizing inorganic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and oxygen, indicative of organic compounds. Coolant 1 was found to contain small amounts of sulfur and phosphorus along with carbon and oxygen. Coolant 2 contained relatively small levels of aluminum, sodium, sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine, along with high carbon and oxygen. The detergent was primarily...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the tube at the failure location. As a result of the compounded effect of these changes, the tube could no longer sustain the internal pressure and finally failed by way of thick-lip rupture. The failure of the tube in the form of longitudinal rupture opening was due to long-term overheating. Thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... + + 4 OH − → 2 Fe ( OH ) 2 Ferrous ( Fe 2 + ) hydroxide precipitates from solution. However, this compound is unstable in oxygenated solutions and is oxidized to the ferric ( Fe 3 + ) salt: (Eq 17) 2 Fe ( OH ) 2 + H 2 O + 1 2 O 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for obtaining elemental and molecular-chemical information from both organics and inorganics. In this mode of operation, the sample integrity and chemistry are preserved by applying extremely low primary ion doses (less than 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 ) during the entire experiment. This ensures that roughly less...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the thermal conduction requirements of the process. Conversion coatings are a form of barrier protection in which a portion of the base metal is converted into a protective compound by a chemical or electrochemical treatment. Because the continuity of the conversion coating is more certain than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) resin. After molding, electronic components are inserted into the sleeves, and the assembly is filled with a potting compound. A retained lot of parts, which had not cracked, were available for reference purposes. A section of clear polymeric tubing failed while in service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at the assembly level. This article covers the properties of solder alloys and the corresponding intermetallic compounds. It includes the dominant failure modes introduced during the solder joint manufacturing process and in field-use applications. The corresponding failure mechanism and root-cause analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the corrosion ( Ref 50 , 51 ). Many organic/inorganic compounds containing elements of groups V B and VI B or functional groups (amines, carbonyls, and alcohols) are effective corrosion inhibitors. It can result in the formation of corrosion products, playing a role in blocking corrosion attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to approximately 0.01 at.% (100 ppm). By monitoring subtle shifts in the atomic binding energies of the emitted photoelectrons, chemical speciation can be obtained from both organic and inorganic materials. Similar to AES, the average depth of analysis is approximately 5 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the diffractometer or on film, and the interplanar atomic ( d ) spacings can then be calculated and compared with data for known compounds, as contained in the database maintained by the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards International Center for Diffraction Data in Swarthmore, PA. Analysis of Base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and Nanoindentation Methods Ceramics are inorganic compounds, such as oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, and mixed ceramics, and are usually produced by sintering. The often-extreme hardness, brittleness, porosity, and chemical resistance of ceramic materials lead to a number of difficulties when preparing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as their compounds are known allergens. [ 25 ] In Fig. 7 , a typical surface resulting from erosion-corrosion damage is seen. A spinal hollow rod was removed from another patient. Through SEM observations, it was seen that a typical pitting-type failure occurred due to corrosive attack, which originated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of obliterating debris and dirt, or to prepare the fracture surface for SEM examination. Other acceptable cleaning procedures include use of a dry-air blast or of a soft-hair artist's brush; treating with inorganic solvents, either by immersion or by jet; treating with mild acid or alkaline solutions (depending...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-molecular-weight macromolecules) consisting of a series of small repeating molecular units (monomers) that are commonly made from compounds of carbon but are also made from inorganic chemicals, such as silicates and silicones. These repeating monomer units exhibit strong covalent bonds that form chains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... solution. (b) Coated with an antiseizure compound consisting of metallic copper flakes in a silicone vehicle Fig. 9 Microstructures of stainless steel bolts that failed from stress-corrosion cracking. (a) Branched intergranular cracking in a type 410 stainless steel bolt from lot 1 (see...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cathode; however, when iron content exceeds 200 ppm, cathodic activity becomes significant (apparently because of the depolarizing effect of the intermetallic compound FeAl 3 ), and galvanic attack of magnesium increases rapidly with increasing iron content. The effect of iron is diminished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compound FeAl 3 ), and galvanic attack of magnesium increases rapidly with increasing iron content. The effect of iron is diminished by the presence of magnesium in the alloy ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 7 Corrosion rates in 3% NaCl solution of magnesium alloy AZ31B coupled with aluminum containing varying...