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ingot-melting

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... appearances. One had been completely melted and solidified into a large homogeneous ingot; the other ingot was a conglomeration of smaller, irregularly shaped nodules or drips ( Fig. 4 ). Analyses by XRF indicated that both ingots were comprised of a nickel/molybdenum alloy similar to the drip that remained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated, furnished...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... melting clinkers from scale and furnace lining filling up the crevice of the original defect. Decarburizing Ingots Nonmetallic inclusions Rolling Fe-0.4C-0.73Mn-1.15Cr-0.28Mo (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures Case History One percent Chromium-Molybdenum steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... melting or casting practices. Inclusions that originate in the ingot are carried on to wrought products, even though their shapes may be appreciably altered. Furthermore, additional nonmetallic matter, such as oxides, may develop during intermediate hot working stages and also end up in the finished form...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... performance of a part by creating a notch of unknown severity and serve as a crack-initiation site during fabrication or in service. Corrosion and wear damage can also be assisted by discontinuities, especially at the surface. These flaws may occur from the melting practices and solidification of ingot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... operation. Pieces of steel, which are used to control the position of the ingot in the furnace, probably melted and unexpectedly contaminated the solidifying ingot. Visual examination of the failed gear and other transmission components showed that the contribution to failure from external sources...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the steel was evident at the periphery of the pocket of inclusions. The composition and appearance of the inclusions and the presence of the partial decarburization indicated that the inclusions could have been associated with ingot defects. The defect was 0.8 mm (0.03 in.) in diameter (max), 25 mm (1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Fig. 3 Schematic of the preparation of ingots for the three-point bending test. Fig. 4 Effect of molybdenum content on internal cracking. (a)Total crack length detected by color-checking method. (b) Change in fraction of intergranular fracture judged bythree-point bending test. Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of these sources: 1) because the steel is formed from rolled sheet, if the oxide is from the ingot, it would be expected to be rolled out longitudinally or 2) if the oxide was introduced by weld repair, evidence of melting and HAZ would be present in the area. No evidence of melting or welding was observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... resulted from fatigue. Shallow oxidized regions adjacent to the inside surface of the bend indicated pre-existing cracks. A sulphur print on the edge of the bracket showed the material was rolled from a rimming steel ingot. The general appearance of the fracture, and the fact failure took place where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-square billets. The hot-work steel mill converter that produced the ingot-to-billet shape exposed the steel to high heat, thereby growing the grains, but did not cause the facets. Charpy “V” notch (CVN) samples were machined from the cheeks of R1 (LS) and LF14 (ULS) failed crankshafts and broken...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... making 18-8 Fe-1.0C-1.5Cr (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures Occasionally metallic inclusions are found in ingots, semi-finished or finished products which top crusts resemble 1 , 2 , 3 . While these can be differentiated from the steel in the primary structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... characteristic of a 3 1 2 % nickel steel in the hardened and tempered condition. Some banding was evident, due to the persistence of the dendritic structure of the ingot from which the wheel was made, and this was also evident on a macroscopic scale on the cross-section shown in Figure 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... by the adverse chemical composition probably contributed to crack initiation at the jog. Amore thorough quality-control program should have been used at the melting and casting stages of the ingot used for manufacturing I-beams. A heat showing a deviation from the specified composition should not have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by a ram inside of a vacuum chamber. An electrical current is then passed through the ingot and allowed to arc to a plate below. The heat generated by this arc causes the ingot to begin melting in droplets, which fall below and resolidify. As the process continues, the ram supporting the initial ingot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and found to be within the specified limits. Discussion Nonmetallic inclusions are an inevitable consequence of commercial alloys and their refractive melting or casting practices. Inclusions that originate in the ingot/raw materials are carried on to forged products even though their shape may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., which entails repeated vacuum lifts into an evacuated vessel where alloys are added. Rectangular hot-topped ingots were cast by bottom pouring. The producer of the bridge steel did not specify when boron was to be added during melting. With no instructions to the contrary, the melt shop added boron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...) Analysis by Bethlehem-Lukens Plate Division The open hearth furnace was tapped into a ladle after the steel was melted and refined. The low silicon and high oxygen content indicates that there may have been only limited deoxidation as the tapping occurred. The steel was teemed into ingot molds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... on a macroscale, in the concentration of alloying elements from the surface to the center of an ingot or casting. Macrosegregation becomes more pronounced with increasing section size. Macrosegregation cannot be reduced by homogenization heat treatment. Segregation generally degrades the physical and chemical...