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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and cracks, while methods such as radiography and ultrasound are capable of detecting imperfections within a part. Other methods are more suited for online monitoring, which is a quality-control function in production systems. Also, there are many NDE methods used for condition monitoring of parts in service...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS are unique in that they are exposed to the biochemical and dynamic environment of the body and their design is dictated by anatomy and restricted by physiological conditions. Orthopedic implants are artificial devices (allentheses) that are mounted to the skeletal system of the human body...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Uniform corrosion is the most common form of corrosion. Its mechanism is electrochemical and is identified as a consistent loss of material over the entire exposed surface of the material in question. This is the type of corrosion that affects the greatest number of structures, such as buildings, bridges...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , Goszczynski G. , and Peca F. , Embrittlement of Alloy 400 by Lead in Secondary Side Steam Generator Environments , Seventh Int. Symp. Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems—Water Reactors , Vol 1 , 7–10 Aug 1995 ( Breckenridge, CO ), National Association of Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reviews some commercial alloy systems in which liquid-metal-induced embrittlement or solid-metal-induced embrittlement has been documented and describes some examples of cracking due to these phenomena, either in manufacturing or in service. commercial alloy systems failure analysis liquid-metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... helps the failure analyst gain an understanding of how the component or system responded to the applied forces. Also, because some mechanical properties can be correlated, tests such as hardness and microhardness of steels can be used to gain an understanding of tensile strength, especially when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) can be measured directly ( Ref 15 ). The size of specimens that can be evaluated using XRD can vary widely from as small as the head of a pin to as large as a ship ( Ref 13 , 16 – 19 ), a building/structure ( Ref 20 , 21 ), or a bridge ( Ref 22 – 25 ). Line of sight for both the incident beam...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., milling, etc.) May have been subject to inappropriate heat treatment (stress relief, induction hardening, service temperature, thermal strains, etc.) The residual stresses present in a component can arise in almost every step of processing ( Ref 1 ) and, in many cases, can play a key role...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....” It is not just things that break. Failures come in all shapes and sizes. They can be individual parts, entire machines, an assembly, a system, or a process. Broken down differently, failures can be physical, human, latent (thinking/cultural) in origin. These possibilities expand the concept of a failure, because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Microscopically, the fracture mode for SCC is usually different from the fracture mode for plane-strain fractures in the same alloy. There appears to be a threshold stress below which SCC does not occur, at least in some systems. The passage of time has not negated these observations, and they are still...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... induction. These eddy currents affect the impedance in the exciting coil or any other pickup coil that is nearby. Cracks or flaws within the sample will cause distortions in the eddy current, which in turn cause distortion in the impedance of the coil. The resulting change in impedance can be detected...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...,” identifies five types of SCC (chloride, caustic, polythionic acid, wet H 2 S-SCC, and ammonia) experienced by crude units in petroleum refineries ( Fig. 2 , Ref 6 ). In industrial and residential plumbing systems, SCC can occur in brass plumbing components that are used in a hard temper condition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... characteristic of a particular alloy system. Fig. 2 Ten different types of flaws that may be found in rolled bars. (a) Inclusions. (b) Laminations from spatter (entrapped splashes) during the pouring. (c) Slivers. (d) Scabs are caused by splashing liquid metal in the mold. (e) Pits and blisters caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists of an anode (which liberates electrons and corrodes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The couple consists of an anode (which liberates electrons and corrodes typically by metal dissolution and/or metal oxide formation) and a cathode (which gains electrons and typically liberates hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1