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incremental sheet forming

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Sheet forming failures divert resources from normal business activities and have significant bottom-line impact. This article focuses on the formation, causes, and limitations of four primary categories of sheet forming failures, namely necks, fractures/splits/cracks, wrinkles/loose...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... water boxes, each containing two pairs of Muntz metal (UNS C28000) tube sheets. Each tube sheet pair contained 5622 25 mm (1 in.) OD × 19 BWG × 14 m (45 ft) UNS C44300 inhibited admiralty brass tubes (total of 44,976 tubes) and 1102 25 mm (1 in.) OD × 19 BWG × 14 m (45 ft) UNS C71500 70Cu-30Ni tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Cold press … 40 … + to − 11.0 1.5 High Low (a) SMC, sheet molding compound; HMC, high-strength sheet molding compound; BMC, bulk molding compound; ZMC, Z molding compound Process Effects on Molecular Orientation Polymer molecules in the melt form flow in a non-Newtonian manner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... molds are most often granulated and reused in the feed stream to the injection unit. Scrap from die-cut sheet forms, such as food storage bags, or thermoformed thin gauge articles, such as coffee cup tops, are again salvaged in-line and routed to granulators to be prepared for reintroduction in the feed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., there is evidence of plastic deformation and failure by microvoid coalescence (MVC) ductile tearing. However, exceptions to this fracture progression mode have been reported. One is formation of a specimen-scale shear band (sometimes associated with void sheet formation at the microscale). One set of circumstances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., there is evidence of plastic deformation and failure by microvoid coalescence (MVC) ductile tearing. However, exceptions to this fracture progression mode have been reported. One is formation of a specimen-scale shear band (sometimes associated with void sheet formation at the microscale). One set of circumstances...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature at which austenite begins to form on heating Ac3 temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed on heating ABS acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene ACI Alloy Casting Institute AES Auger electron spectroscopy AGMA American Gear Manufacturers Asso- ciation AISI American Iron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... monomer units exhibit strong primary covalent bonds that form chains, which are also frequently linked by weaker secondary bonds (i.e., hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force). Polymers may also exhibit limited crystallinity, which occurs when the polymer chains arrange themselves into an orderly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... separate the initiation stage into ( Ref 3 ): Accumulation of local irreversible plastic deformation Creation of microscopic flaws Growth and coalescence of flaws to form one or more macroscopic cracks Careful laboratory study of unnotched high-purity metals and alloys has shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ): Accumulation of local irreversible plastic deformation Creation of microscopic flaws Growth and coalescence of flaws to form one or more macroscopic cracks Careful laboratory study of unnotched high-purity metals and alloys has shown that repeated plastic deformation can result in localization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... MANUFACTURING (AM) refers to a group of free-form fabrication technologies that incrementally build up a solid part by computer-controlled deposition of material from a digital solid model. The technology is an outgrowth and broadening of rapid prototyping methods that were developed in the 1980s to accelerate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (elastomers) to almost pure linear elastic (Hookian behavior) with low strains to fracture (glassy polymers). The majority of polymers have properties somewhere between these two extremes. Virtually all polymeric materials show some form of inelastic behavior ( Ref 1 , 2 ). Elastomers exhibit hysteresis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... temperature, resulting in a viscous liquid that can be formed into useful shapes by means of heat and pressure. Examples of thermoplastic processing include injection molding, extrusion, blow molding, and thermoforming. Upon cooling, the polymer either crystallizes or vitrifies to a glassy polymer (i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Any T m given is for remaining crystalline portion or for crystalline version. (b) Degradation temperature ( T d ) = 500 °C (930 °F). R contains at least one aromatic ring. (c) Based on private communication, American Cyanamid Co. Source: Ref 1 – 3 and product information sheets...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... components, which is addressed in detail in Ref 1 , is not covered in this Volume. Tables 1 and 2 list some general types of macroscale and microscale fractographic features, which are described in more detail in this article. In summary form, the following are key features in distinguishing between...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... process. Simply restated, the primary measure of a successful design process is foreseeing and avoiding failure. Design generally requires specific engineering expertise and is performed by a wide variety of engineering disciplines, such as: Civil engineers design large structural forms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... process. Simply restated, the primary measure of a successful design process is foreseeing and avoiding failure. Design generally requires specific engineering expertise and is performed by a wide variety of engineering disciplines, such as: Civil engineers design large structural forms...