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incremental forging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was in the main spar of the delta wing. The crash was apparently caused by engine failure. The fatigue crack in the bolt hole was located during a later analysis. The Mirage III-0 wing main spar ( Fig. 1 ) is machined from a large forging of AU4SG, an aluminum-copper alloy similar in composition to 2014...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... with an environmental factor to account for the un-striated cleavage-plus-flutes increment; (2) a period of low cycle, high stress fatigue comprising 50–100 load cycles; (3) another period similar to the first one; (4) and finally another period of low cycle, high stress fatigue comprising 25–30 load cycles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and is located on the helicopter as shown in Figure 1 . This figure also shows the location of the failure (indicated by arrow). The component is forged from maraging 300 steel, and after heat treatment and final machining, is cadmium coated using a vacuum deposition process. The part is subsequently painted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... McKelvey S.A. and Fatemi A. , Surface Finish Effect on Fatigue Behavior of Forged Steel , Int. J. Fatigue , Vol 36 (No. 1 ), March 2012 , p 130 – 145 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2011.08.008 155. Prueter P.E. , Techniques for Simulating Creep Damage Evolution at Welds with Emphasis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rolling contact (sliding to left and rolling to right). Fatigue cracks initiate at surface. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 9 Pitting on helical gear teeth caused by contact fatigue. Pitting cracks frequently initiate subsurface. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 10 Large circular spall on forged, hardened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... 10 Large circular spall on forged, hardened alloy steel mill roll. Faint red arrow marks location of subsurface fatigue origin. Beach marks are evident within the fatigue propagation zone, which is surrounded by fast brittle fracture. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 12 Schematic illustration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... forming provide economic drivers, while the ability to achieve high strength finished product from low strength starting material is due to strain hardening. Flow forming is an incremental forming process that uses a 3-D variation of basic rolling processes and combines rolling, shearing, and bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particle in a quenched and tempered 4140 alloy steel due to a bending stress. The component was forged, and considerable directionality (banding and fibering) exists in the material. Crack propagation from bottom to top in the photograph. Courtesy of M. West, University of Tennessee The common...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The component was forged, and considerable directionality (banding and fibering) existed in the material. Crack propagation from bottom to top in the photograph. Courtesy of Michael West, University of Tennessee The common observation for steels is that fracture is initiated by (relatively large) sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on different failure concepts . J. Mater. Process. Technol. 80–81 , 602 – 607 ( 1998 ) 10.1016/S0924-0136(98)00168-X 6. Falk B. , Engel U. , Geiger M. : Fundamental aspects for the evaluation of the fatigue behavior of cold forging tools . J. Mater. Process. Technol. 119 ( 1–3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) component that cracked during quenching due to the presence of soft spots (arrows) on the surface. These soft spots were revealed by cold etching the surface with 10% aqueous nitric acid. Original magnification: 0.4× Fig. 16 (a) AISI O1 tool steel ring forging that cracked during quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... martensite and unstable retained austenite, often fail by quench cracking. Figure 16(a) shows a 44-cm (17 1 2 -in.) OD × 33-cm (13-in.) ID × 5-cm (2-in.) thick ring forging made of AISI O1 tool steel that cracked during quenching. Temper color was present on the crack surface. The interior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., age-hardening aluminum alloys, etc.), its general product form (e.g., wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, additive manufacture, etc.), and the processing method (e.g., forged, die cast, injection molded, etc.). All of these factors must be considered when the shape of a part is defined during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., stainless steel, age-hardening aluminum alloys, etc.), its general product form (e.g., wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, etc.), and the processing method (e.g., forged, die cast, injection molded, etc.). All of these factors must be considered when the shape of a part is defined during configuration design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., the attachment of the shell segment to nozzle ring is not a monoblock casting, forging, or full penetration butt weld. Fig. 13 illustrates the fillet weld lap joint attachment of the tank car nozzle to the two ring shell segments of the tank car shell. Fig. 13 Nozzle/plate lap weld to two center shell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... MANUFACTURING (AM) refers to a group of free-form fabrication technologies that incrementally build up a solid part by computer-controlled deposition of material from a digital solid model. The technology is an outgrowth and broadening of rapid prototyping methods that were developed in the 1980s to accelerate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., about ten striations were found grouped together. It is reasonable to assume that each discrete band represents the increment of crack growth that occurred during a single flight, and that the fine striations represent flight maneuvers and changes in the engine rotational speed. Fig. 7 Banded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../crack surface can be cleaned after corrosion deposits have been collected and an initial microscopic examination of the surface has been completed. Cleaning should be completed in an incremental fashion, starting with the most benign cleaning agent before progressing to more aggressive cleaners, using...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forgings that have not been worked sufficiently to close it up. Both macroporosity and microporosity are caused by the combined action of metal shrinkage and gas evolution during solidification. It has been shown ( Ref 2 , 3 ) that nucleation of pores is difficult in the absence of some sort...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in striation spacing indicates either a sudden large increase in Δ K to cause the crack increment Δ a , or a sudden large decrease in Δ K . If the resolution of the microscope is inadequate, the much smaller and closer-spaced striations at low Δ K may not be visible. One striation corresponds to one cycle...