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inclusions and stress gaps

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... compression plates, and hollow spinal rods. Some of the failure mechanisms that were identified include corrosive attack, corrosion plus erosion-corrosion, inclusions and stress gaps, production impurities, design flaws, and manufacturing defects. Failure prevention and mitigation strategies are also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... in the horizontal plane, and the fracture gap was considerably open. The screws and plates supplied by different manufacturers were revealed to be different with respect to microcleanliness (primary inclusion content) of the materials and only one of them was found to be according to specifications. The local crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanical instability is present ( Ref 15 , 16 ). Thus, fracture gaps can widen and implants, or portions of implants, can become loose. The widening of fracture gaps means increased cyclic loading of the implant unless weight bearing is reduced. Implant loosening can cause either local stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Cyclic Stressing , J. Basic Eng. (Trans. ASME) D , Vol 88 , Sept 1966 , p 555 – 567 10.1115/1.3645902 22. Buchwald J. and Heckel R.W. , An Analysis of Microstructural Changes in 52100 Steel Bearings during Cyclic Stressing , Trans. ASM , Vol 61 , 1968 , p 750 – 756 23...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was attributed to a poor stud bolt design, which allowed a high stress concentration to occur at the base of the threads upon application of a lateral load. It was recommended that bolts of a new design that incorporated a stress-relieving groove be used. Threading of the bolt to eliminate the gap between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... into the partially open joint gap and carburized the overlapping tongue. During deformation of the core material splinters then broke out of the high temperature embrittled case layer through overloading and through impact blows that occur during stressing of chains during dissolving of slings. These splinters had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... on the implant. However, if the bone is not perfectly reconstructed, if fracture gaps are present or fragments of bone are missing, the weight-bearing forces are not completely balanced and the loads may be unevenly distributed. As a result, bending and torsional stresses can concentrate in areas of the implant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... inclusions on planes parallel to the plate surface, caused by weld shrinkage stresses. The cracks caused by the root weld pass were not by themselves large enough to initiate fracture, but subsequent thermomechanical cycling during the remainder of the welding process caused dynamic strain aging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... initiated at an overload fracture near the root of the weld and was followed by mode III fatigue crack propagation (tearing) around the periphery of the weld. The initial overload fracture was caused by a high external load, which produced a concentrated stress and fracture at the weld root. The subsequent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Non-metallic inclusions in the blade material playing a minor part. Cracking (fracturing) Loads (forces) Nonmetallic inclusions Stresses Turbine blades Vibration Ferritic stainless steel (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture The failure described occurred in a 45,000 kW, 3,000...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as a result of out-of-plane distortion in a small gap ( Ref 1 ). Most often, this was a segment of a girder web. When distortion-induced cracking develops in a bridge, large numbers of cracks usually form before corrective action is taken because the cyclic stresses are often very high. As a result, many...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., considerable structural changes took place on the inner wall of the flange. Thermal stresses and excessive mechanical loads due to smearing of the flange material then led to fracture of the flange. Cracking (fracturing) Flanges Pumps Fe-1.54C-18.2Cr (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... . Metallurgical investigation of the failed tube revealed the presence of a large number of inclusions in the material. Inclusions and stringers created large stress concentrations at hard particle matrix interfaces. The mechanical bond between the particle matrix experienced de-cohesion that leads to cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Undercutting Overlaps Underfill Investigation Conclusion Corrective Measures Geometric Discontinuities Example 15: Fatigue Cracking of Welded Tubular Posts in a Carrier Vehicle because of the Presence of Inclusions that Acted as Stress Raisers Conclusion Recommendation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of fractures due to environmental problems. Figure 7 shows a stress-corrosion crack in a partially broken sample of solution-annealed AISI 304 stainless steel tested in boiling (151 °C, or 304 °F) magnesium chloride. The crack path is predominantly intergranular, but considerable transgranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to corroborate phase identification. Unetched specimens were also examined to observe nonmetallic inclusions. Automatic quantitative image analysis was carried out on polished and etched microsections to determine the volume percent of alloy carbides dispersed in the tempered martensite. The sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by drawing filler metal into closely fitted surfaces by capillary action. Because most brazed joints are designed as lap joints, they are subjected mainly to shear stresses in service. In general, the overlap should be at least three times the thickness of the thinnest member, and the joint gap should...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... This would have the effect of reducing the strength of the eyebar below the nominal value. It would also serve as a likely spot for a fatigue or stress corrosion crack to initiate. Fig. 8 Microstructure. Fig. 9 Curved Slag Inclusion. The normal tensile strength of wrought iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... joints are very common because they can be assembled easily, a major benefit in field installations, but the design of socket-welded fittings contributes to their susceptibility to high-cycle fatigue failure. The annular gap formed when the pipe is inserted into the fitting creates an unavoidable stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... one of the most common imperfections involved in failures. Nonmetallic inclusions can easily become stress concentrators because of their discontinuous nature and incompatibility with the surrounding composition. This combination may very well yield flaws of critical size, which, under appropriate...