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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract The cause of the fatigue failure in the retaining ring of the compressor region of an aero-engine turbine was found to be the presence of a high concentration of nonmetallic inclusions. The results of chemical analysis were used to estimate the phases present. The most frequently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... by visual examination. The cracks were originated as circumferential cracks and then propagated transversely into the bearing-bore wall. No inclusions in the master rod were detected by magnetic-particle and x-ray inspection. Three large inclusions lying approximately parallel to the grain direction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0045909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... and etched and were found to be composed of ferrite and pearlite mixtures, as would be expected. However, the sample taken from a location about 75 mm (3 in.) from the hole contained a cluster of unusually large inclusions. By removing the beryllium window from in front of the detector, EPMA spectra were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Examples of metallic inclusions in steels of various types are presented. The structure of an inclusion in an annealed Fe-1C-1.5Cr steel consisted of ferrite with lamellar pearlite. The carbon content of the inclusion was therefore considerably lower than that of the chromium steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showed that these lines were not cracks but slag inclusions at and immediately below the surface. Analysis (visual inspection, metallographic examination, and 100x/500x magnetic-particle inspection) supported the conclusions that the inclusions consisted of pieces of fireclay from channel brick that were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... axially in the raceway and was flanked by areas of markedly different-textured flaking damage. Stringers of nonmetallic inclusions were revealed at the origin during metallographic examination of a section parallel to the axially oriented origin. Thus it was concluded that the failure was caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of improved design were attributed to fatigue cracks initiating at the aluminum oxide inclusions in the flange fillet. Recommendations included retaining the improved design of the flange with the weld approximately 50 mm (2 in.) from the fillet, but changing the metal to a forging of AISI 4140 steel, oil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... Recommendations included changing the valve material to type 304 stainless steel. Nonmetallic inclusions Sulfides Valves Vending machines 303 UNS S30300 Intergranular corrosion After about two years in service, a valve in contact with a carbonated soft drink in a vending machine occasionally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was found to terminate at the welds that joined the bend to the pipeline. A high concentration of both small and large inclusions was exhibited by the metallographic examination of the steel near the fracture. Branched cracks similar to those produced by stress corrosion of steel were observed in a section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... reflectors, indicating the presence of slag inclusions and porosity. A low-carbon steel flux-cored filler metal was used in repair welding the crankshaft, without any preweld or postweld heating. This resulted in the formation of martensite in the HAZ. The repair weld failed by brittle fracture, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... might have resulted in deoxidizing stage. Particularly the absence of Fe in some areas in the inclusion was indicative of precipitation deoxidation by ferromanganese/ferrosilicon. The defects apparently did not have time to coalesce and rise up to the top. Crankshafts Forgings Nonmetallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the main-bearing journals. A crack along the fillet, almost entirely through the web, was observed in one of the main-bearing journals. Numerous coarse segregates, identified as sulfide inclusions, were identified by macroetching the surface during metallographic examination of a section taken through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of 40 to 46 HRC. Visual inspection and 100x micrographs showed the fracture surface as having a complex type of fatigue failure initiated from subsurface inclusions in the transition zone between the induction-hardened surface and the softer core. The fractured shaft was examined for chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., 66 400 39, 36 Fracture toughness data, Ref. [<xref rid="c9001780-ref24" ref-type="bibr">24</xref>] Table 7 Fracture toughness data, Ref. [ 24 ] Sulfide inclusion aspect ratio Avg. longitudinal K Ic (ksi-√inch) Avg. transverse K Ic (ksi-√inch) 17.5 40.3 34.9 10.2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... oxide and covered on the back surfaces with an adherent black polyethylene plastic. Macro fractography, SEM fractography, EDX analysis, and photo elasticimetry were conducted on four of the shattered panels. Small nickel sulfide inclusions were found at the failure origins. Failure of the panels...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 15 MnS Inclusions in Matrix More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 13 Fracture surface showing fern-like pattern of inclusions. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Typical worst yield view of inclusions at magnification of the RMS Titanic steel plate in the transverse plane. (Unetched — 500×) More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 10 The SEM micrograph shows sulfide inclusions A and B in the fracture surface of the transverse Charpy specimen from the RMS Titanic plate tested at −34 °C. Reproduced with permission of the Iron &amp; Steelmaker. 13 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Large irregular and flat slag inclusions (as polished), at ×100 More