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inclusion rating

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... transverse to the crack surface and subsequent examination confirmed the presence of a slag inclusion on the edge of the crack. The inclusion ran the full length of the component. The stress raising effect of the inclusion in combination with the residual and service stresses served to initiate the cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... propagation rate, wherein the cracks cut across the inclusions and traveled along slightly pancaked inclusion surfaces. The SL orientation (see Table 3 ) had the fastest propagation rate, where the cracks propagated along the long axis of the inclusions. Decohesion between the inclusions and the matrix...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for determining the inclusion rating as per ASTM E 45. Microexamination of the ring material revealed presence of A-type (sulfides), B-type (alumina), and D-type (globular oxides) inclusions. The average inclusion rating of the ring material was found to be A 1½ thin and heavy, B 1 thin and heavy, and D 1 thin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ). Fig. 16 Optical micrograph of the tube section showing the nonmetallic inclusions (a) near the failure and (b) away from the failure. Note the high inclusion rating near the failure region. Fig. 17 17 Optical micrographs of the tube section showing the variation in grain size in Stage 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for these pressure vessels. The development work described in this paper used SAE 4130 steel that was not electroslag remelted. The inclusion ratings of this grade of steel, based on ASTM E 45, are as follows: Sulfides Alumina Silicates Globular oxides Thin Thick Thin Thick Thin Thick Thin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... ] for determining the inclusion content of steel as recommended by ASTM, using Method A, procedure 9.1.1. The inclusions were of type D, thin series, and the inclusion rating was between 1 and 2. Three microhardness measurements were made on the metallographic sample using a 5 g (49.1N) load. The hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... ways. First, specimens with higher levels of hydrogen averaged lower ductile values than specimens with lower hydrogen content. The role of hydrogen becomes more complicated in the presence of inclusion clusters and slower strain rate conditions. The preponderance of erratic ductile behavior observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... everywhere over the range of cooling rates results in the increase of strength and reduction of ductility with the increase of carbon content in wheel steels. In order to obtain high fracture resistance, the microstructure uniformity and pearlite dispersity must be raised. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...), and the activation of a given mechanism depends on the temperature, loading rate, and degree of constraint. In an ideal material containing neither inclusions nor second phases, ductile fracture would be expected to occur by slip and possibly twinning and result in complete reduction in area ( Fig. 1 ). Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... depends on the temperature, loading rate, state of stress, and degree of constraint. In an ideal material containing neither inclusions nor second phases, ductile fracture would be expected to occur by slip and possibly twinning and result in complete reduction in area ( Fig. 1 ). Alternately...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at inclusions beneath the surface, such as carbides, oxides, and sulfides. The initial crack-growth rate in the so-called very-high-cycle fatigue range is extremely low, for example, da / dN = 10 −8 mm/cycle = 4* 10 −10 in/cycle. Assessing Fatigue S-N Properties Given the extensive history...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... annealed prior to finish machining. During the annealing treatment, after a 30 min soak at 1050 °C (1920 °F), component A was furnace cooled at a rate of 120 °C/h (215 °F/h), whereas component B was air cooled. Subsequently, the parts were pickled in a solution of 10 to 20% HNO 3 , 2 to 3% HF...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in accordance with ASTM E45-87, method A, plate III. The microcleanliness ratings were as follows: Type A inclusions (sulfides) None detected Type B inclusions (alumina) None detected Type C inclusions (silicates) None detected Type D inclusions (globular oxides) Fields: 1 heavy: 1 1 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
.... The drill had shattered suddenly with a bang which caused a chip to be dislodged and cause the injury. A large nonmetallic inclusion parallel to the axis near the center of the drill was revealed in an unetched longitudinal section. Carbide bands in a martensitic matrix were indicated in an etched sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... inclusion served as the initiation site. The short time to failure is attributed to the ease of initiation and increased fatigue crack propagation rates due to the presence of the low pH chloride containing body fluids surrounding a fresh wound. The femoral plate analyzed in this investigation failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the centerline of the weld. A number of slag inclusions are obvious in the weld macrographs, but the cracking does not progress along these inclusions. Inclusions of this type can be expected when proper interpass slag removal is not completed. The confinement of the cracking to the weld fusion zone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electron beam welds electroslag welds fatigue fitness-for-service assessment flash welds friction welding high-frequency induction welds inclusions joint design laser beam welds mechanical testing porosity upset butt welds weld discontinuity weldment failure weldment integrity WELDMENT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking • Alignment, vibration, balance • High cycle low stress: large fatigue zone; low cycle high stress: small fatigue zone • Mild overheating and/or mild overstressing at elevated temperature • Unstable microstructures and small grain size increase creep rates • Ruptures occur after long exposure...