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impurity elements

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... are not associated with the alloy composition and were probably introduced by an outside source, such as water, chemicals used to treat the water, or cleaning agents. The analysis of shroud surface A was similar to that of the fracture surface; however, the level of impurity elements was slightly lower in the former...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Leakage was identified around a coupling welded into a stainless steel holding tank that stored condensate water with low impurity content. The tank and fitting were manufactured from type 304 stainless steel. The coupling joint consisted of an internal groove weld and an external...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Introduction Experimental Methods Mechanical Properties Experimental Results Crack Morphology SAM Analysis Impact Fracture and Microstructure Summary and Conclusions Discussion The grain boundary segregation of the impurity elements such as phosphorous and tin embrittles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract A broken cross-recessed die was examined. Examination of the unetched, polished section for impurities revealed several coarse streaks of slag. The purity did not therefore correspond to the requirements set for a high speed tool steel of the given theoretical quality DMo 5. After...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., or Ni-Cr-Mo-V steels) are susceptible to temper embrittlement when exposed to temperatures in the range of 315 to 480 °C (600 to 900 °F) for long periods of time. The degree of embrittlement depends on the amount of impurity elements, especially phosphorus and sulfur. Forgings manufactured prior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., impurities 90Cu-10Ni Intergranular corrosion Background An as-drawn 90-10 cupronickel tube readily cracked when mechanically worked. No unusual processing conditions during manufacture of the tube could he identified. To complicate matters, many of the process variables were changed during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that some external particle, floating in the plating tank, might have been plated over by the EN, causing the defect to protrude on the plated surface. However, the EDS spectrum from the hole ( Fig. 3 ) did not show any external impurity in the hole. It was a distinct possibility that the trapped impurity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fracture where no film is visible and, due to impurity, atom segregation at the grain boundary Environmentally induced embrittlement where there is neither a grain-boundary precipitate or solute segregation Grain-boundary segregation of elements (such as oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, selenium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... precipitate nor solute segregation Grain-boundary segregation of elements (such as oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, selenium, arsenic, tin, antimony, and tellurium) is known to produce IG brittle fractures. Studies of the effects of such impurities in pure iron have been greatly aided by the development...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... not been carried out as specified. It was recommended that the sheathing material be fully annealed and that the outer surface be pickled and passivated. Electric heating elements Heat-distributing units Marine atmospheres Nuclear reactor components Sheaths 304L UNS S30403 Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the composition and property requirements for the identified cap screw grade. However, antimony, phosphorus, tin, sulfur, lead, and other low-melting-point impurities, which are generally very expensive to analyze, also may be factors contributing to the embrittlement situation. These elements, like hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... characterization of surfaces Technique Information Analysis depth Analysis area Detection limit Ease of use EDS Elemental <5 μm <1 μm <1 at.% Easy WDS Elemental <5 μm >1 μm <0.1 at.% Easy AES Elemental <5 nm >100 nm <0.5 at.% Moderate XPS Elemental...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was different from that specified. The presence of excess aluminum and lead impurities that had segregated to the grain boundaries, coupled with an inadequate amount of magnesium, resulted in intergranular corrosion and subsequent intergranular failure. Corrosion was accelerated by storage in a humid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... associated with dimple rupture. In pure metals and alloys refined to remove all impurities (where there is no ready supply of sites for microvoids to nucleate), the material can fail by adiabatic shear-band formation, resulting in a somewhat flat fracture surface devoid of dimples. Transgranular dimple...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... circumstances. In some ductile materials, shear-band fractures may also show evidence of microvoid coalescence (MVC), typically associated with dimple rupture. In pure metals and alloys refined to remove all impurities (where there is no ready supply of sites for microvoids to nucleate), the material may fail...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Composition of Failed Marriage Bolt and ASTM A193 B16 Table 2 Chemical Composition of Failed Marriage Bolt and ASTM A193 B16 Element Composition, % C Si P S Mn Cr Mo V Failed bolt 0.39 0.31 0.007 0.015 0.58 0.98 0.57 0.25 A193 B16 0.36–0.44 0.2–0.35 0–0.04 0–0.04...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
....: D.G. Ships Procurement Specification 1043, Issue 03, “Nickel-Aluminium Forgings, Forging Stock, Rods and Sections,” MOD, U.K., Ships Dept., March 1981 . 4. Sadayappan M. , Zavadil R. , and Sahoo M. : “Effect of Impurity Elements on the Mechanical Properties of Aluminium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... been “gassed” or the material contained some impurity which had segregated at the grain boundaries and formed brittle intercrystalline films. While the indications were that the former hypothesis was most probably the correct one, it was thought desirable to ascertain if there were any embrittling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... for which the pressure vessel was constructed. It can also be seen on the section from the fracture edge in Fig. 3 that more than half the wall was broken up by stress corrosion cracking even before fracture occurred. The fibrous fracture surface (right) follows the impurities lying in the forging...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the potential of the grains. Furthermore, cathodic polarization will stop the cracking. This theory has been extended to include metals that do not form intermetallic precipitates but for which phase changes or segregation of alloying elements or impurities can occur during plastic deformation of metal...