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imperfections

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0089716
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... not positively identified but were generally classified as semi-killed carbon steels. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, chemical analysis, Charpy V-notch testing, and drop-weight testing) supported the conclusions that the fracture was initiated by weld imperfections and propagated in a brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the general root causes of failure associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be the common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... imperfections may be tolerable and how the other may be root-cause defects in service failures. The article explains the effects of joint design on weldment integrity. It outlines the origins of failure associated with the inherent discontinuity of welds and the imperfections that might be introduced from arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... surface imperfections. Electric motors Stress concentration Thermal stresses 1151 UNS G11510 Brittle fracture (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures Splined rotor shafts like that shown in Fig. 1 were used on small electric motors. It was found that one spline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the conclusions that brittle fracture of the flange from the body was the result of overload caused by misalignment between the flange and the roll holder. The microstructure contained graphite flakes of excessive size and inclusions in critical areas; however, these metallurgical imperfections did not appear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0048535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... imperfection. As the crack progressed, the service load shifted to the section marked L. This overload on location L appears to have caused another fatigue crack that propagated first over the smooth-banded region. Catastrophic failure occurred when the component became unstable under the applied load...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... that were formed before the castings were heat treated. Recommendations included the following changes in processing: better gating and risering in the foundry to achieve sounder castings; better shakeout practice to avoid mechanical damage; better inspection to detect imperfections; and normalizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The fatigue crack originated at a material imperfection and progressed in more than one plane because changes in the direction of wheel rotation altered the direction of the applied stresses. Recommendations included rewriting the inspection specifications to require sound forgings. Aircraft components...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was considered generic, and the conclusion was that the primary failure mechanism was LCF. Material imperfections were a secondary deficiency that had the effect of causing the blades from the bad HIP lot to crack first. Gas turbine engines Hot isostatic pressing Low cycle fatigue Turbine blades Nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand molds...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the underlying fundamentals, applications, the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. It presents an introduction to the stress analysis of bodies containing crack-like imperfections and the topic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometric factors and materials aspects that influence the stress-strain behavior and fracture of ductile metals. It highlights fractures arising from manufacturing imperfections and stress raisers. The article presents a root cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of the fractography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 Narrow-headed arrows show porosity internal to the casting. The wide-head arrows show the ratchet marks—an indication here that the crack has started in multiple locations along the inside surface. Fig. 2 The large-headed arrows show surface imperfections. The smaller arrows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0090943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... that would be highly stressed and did not appear to be consistently correlated to casting imperfections, repair welds, or associated heat-affected zones. Cracking across the gear face suggested that bending forces from misalignment were likely responsible for the cracking. Recommendations included further...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that this imperfection, although small, initiated fracture because of the local geometry and stress conditions and the low toughness of the steel. It was recommended that (1) the probability of flaws be reduced by welding over or grinding out arc strikes, (2) the local stresses be lowered by post weld stress relief...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Stainless steel pipe (273-mm OD x 8-mm wall thickness) used in the fabrication of large manifolds developed crack-like decohesions during a routine inductive bending procedure. The imperfections, which were found near the outside diameter, were around 3 mm in length oriented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... direction Mechanism of cracking and the path of fracture Load conditions (monotonic or cyclic) Environment Geometric constraints that influenced crack initiation and/or crack propagation Fabrication imperfections that influenced crack initiation and/or crack propagation In the latter...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lips Mixed-mode fracture (incomplete constraint) Tightly closed crack on surface Possible cyclic loading Possible processing imperfection, e.g., from shot peening, quench cracks Radial marks and chevrons (v-shape) Point toward crack initiation site Show crack propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by taking stress transformations to find maximum normal stresses (principal stresses) and maximum shear stresses as well as by some other special stress definitions. The section “Defects and Imperfections” in this article introduces the stress analysis of bodies containing cracklike imperfections...