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immersion water quenching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract The U-0.8wt%Ti alloy is often used in weapon applications where high strength and fairly good ductility are necessary. Components are immersion quenched in water from the gamma phase to produce a martensitic structure that is amenable to aging. Undesirable conditions occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., but the distortion in Fig. 15(b) (medium-carbon steel of poor hardenability) shows a configuration that combines convex and concave distortion. In addition, water quenching has a greater effect on distortion than oil quenching. Figures 15(c) and (f) show the configurations after tempering. These results show...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... adequate flow through workload Nonuniform agitation causes temperature gradients within workload and part May not be uniform Rolling on surface is poor guide to agitation Must be measured or modeled Type of quenchant Brine, water, oil, polymer, gas, air Quench rate must...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted, galvanic series based on seawater or other standard electrolytes are worthwhile...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and the parts were bent to the specified shape. The U-bolts were then austenitized, oil quenched, and tempered to a hardness of 30 to 35 HRC at the surface to obtain a uniform tempered-martensite microstructure. Oil quenching, rather than water quenching, was used to avoid cracking of the bolts through the cut...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... were cut on both ends, and the parts were bent to the specified shape. The U-bolts were then austenitized, oil quenched, and tempered to a hardness of 30 to 35 HRC at the surface to obtain a uniform tempered martensite microstructure. Oil quenching, rather than water quenching, was used to avoid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by heating at 980 °C (1800 °F) and water quenching removed the intergranular network of carbides. Conclusions The clamp fractured by SCC because the work metal was sensitized. Sensitization occurred during long-term exposure to the service temperature; the effects of sensitization were intensified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Supplemental duct firing with a variety of fuels can also be used. Combined cycle power plants provide a major source of electricity. The heat-transfer surface in the HRSG consists of finned tubes connected to upper and lower headers ( Fig. 1 ). The headers carry water or steam that is heated by the CT exhaust...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... part failure Causes Type of failure Numbers Low water cut-off Faulty design fabrication or installation Corrosion or erosion Operator error or poor maintenance Burner failure Pressure control failure Other Burned or overheated Collapsed inward Combination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Cavitation damage may occur when surfaces in contact with fluid are subjected to vibrations (e.g., water-cooled diesel-engine cylinder liner). Sometimes, cavitation can initiate other types of wear such as adhesion or abrasion because of wear particles produced at the friction interface, making the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rivet holes and other areas of high stress when boiler water contained caustic soda (NaOH) or the boiler water chemistry was conducive to the formation of caustic soda ( Ref 4 ). In their 1926 paper, “The Cause and Prevention of Embrittlement of Boiler Plate,” researchers at the University of Illinois...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... found to remove the coating and clean the fracture face without attack on the metal. Figure 13 shows a fracture that had taken place during a drilling operation in a water-laden soil environment. In Fig. 13(a) , the fracture is initially covered with corrosion products, the surface being reddish...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... place during a drilling operation in a water-laden soil environment. In Fig. 13(a) , the fracture is initially covered with corrosion products, the surface being reddish-brown from the rust present. Figure 13(b) is a high-magnification view showing the nodules typically observed on the rusty surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., lubricant, and bearing components Potential sources of debris Potential sources of electrical current passing through the bearing Potential sources of water and other corrosive fluids Load spectrum and sources of potential-unknown loads Misalignment of deflections that influence load...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... them as akin to the system of waves that spread across the surface of water when a stone is thrown into it, the point of entry of the stone corresponding to the origin of the crack. This analogy must not be pressed too far, however, for whereas waves on water form concentric circles, there is usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the effectiveness of REB sealing include: Frictional power losses Maximum rotational speeds Effectively avoid ingress of water Effectively avoid ingress of dust Retention of lubricant medium (grease) In terms of materials and environmental influences, Table 11 lists the different materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or sectioning destroy evidence needed for failure analysis. Fracture of a part in service is often intimately associated with the type of environment to which the part was exposed. Active chemical environments include water, salt air, salt water, acid solutions, alkaline solutions, molten metal, and even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-strength quenched and tempered steel is significantly smoother overall than is the overload fracture of a pearlitic steel or annealed copper. Also, fracture surface roughness increases as a crack propagates, so the roughest area on the fracture surface is usually the last to fail ( Fig. 4 ) ( Ref 4...