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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... acidic, containing citric and phosphoric acids and having a pH of 2.4 to 2.5. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, immersion testing in the soft drink, and 100x unetched micrographs) supported the conclusion that the failure was caused by the size and distribution of sulfide stringers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Several stainless steel bolts used on a Titan Space Launch Vehicle broke at the shank and failure was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking. But results could not be duplicated in the laboratory with salt-solution immersion tests until the real culprit was established...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... a color different from that used on the aluminum alloy 2014 or 2017 nuts). Alloy 6061 is not susceptible to SCC, and alloy 2024 in the tempers selected has been shown to withstand much higher transverse tensile stresses than alloy 2014-T6 in alternate-immersion tests in 3.5% sodium chloride solution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract The U-0.8wt%Ti alloy is often used in weapon applications where high strength and fairly good ductility are necessary. Components are immersion quenched in water from the gamma phase to produce a martensitic structure that is amenable to aging. Undesirable conditions occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Investigation (visual inspection, 95x unetched images, chemical testing with a 5% salt spray, chemical testing with sodium hypochlorite at three strength levels, samples were also pickled in an aqueous solution containing 15 vol% concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and 3 vol% concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... small coupons of 1100, 6063, and 8001 aluminum alloy immersed in L-basin. When pitting was observed, a more extensive surveillance program was put in place and expanded to include all the active storage basins on site. Component Immersion Tests In late-1991, corrosion testing switched to the K...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... protection of the more-noble base metal, as in the case of galvanized steel or Alclad aluminum. Evaluation of Galvanic Corrosion In terms of general evaluation, the most common method of predicting galvanic corrosion is by immersion testing of the galvanic couple in the environment of interest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as it often appears in brass after heavier cold deformation. Fig. 6 Course of crack in microstructure; etchant: copper ammonium chloride ammonium hydroxide. 100× Therefore a test was conducted according to DIN 1785 to check for sensitivity to stress cracking. This consists in immersing a brass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... aluminum coatings apply excellent, tough corrosion-protection programs for steels where very long-term atmospheric protection of steel is needed. Evaluation of Galvanic Corrosion In terms of general evaluation, the most common method of predicting galvanic corrosion is by immersion testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... then evaluated for polarization resistance and corrosion rate when immersed in the mildly alkaline product that is stored in the tanks. The tanks were all studied at ambient temperature. Electrochemical Impedance Electrochemical corrosion test cells were assembled to expose the surface of each panel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Ferrules that had been stress relieved after forming but not assembled to fuses passed the mercurous nitrate test; similar unassembled ferrules that had not been stress relieved after forming cracked before the required 30 min immersion period was completed. The mercurous nitrate test also showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... ( Figure 13 ). Fig. 12 Rust debris on immersion test sample. The wedge is still in place but is out of focus (×3). Fig. 13 Pitting of immersion test samples. a) Slot parallel to stud axis (×10). Note the crack-like defect zig-zagging from the notch tip. b) Slot perpendicular to stud axis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to fail. In this case study, the history of failures is traced, the causes are analyzed, and recommendations are made for future design and maintenance. Coils fabricated from AISI 316 should provide satisfactory service life if reasonable precautionary measures are observed during maintenance and testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... industry-recognized tests are available to determine if stresses are present in sufficient quantities to cause cracking. To determine if sufficient stress was present in the failed connector bodies, exemplar connectors from the same manufacturing lot were cleaned, degreased, and then immersed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... biochemical characterization using the following tests: (1) Gram staining, (2) Catalase test, (3) oxidase test, (4) pigment production, (5) nitrate reduction test, (6) indole production, (7) methyl red test, (8) Voges–Proskauer test, (9) citrate utilization test, (10) McConkey test, (11) Urease activity, (12...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the tailpipes, specimens were subjected to 72-h immersion in boiling, acidified copper sulfate (Strauss test). These specimens showed separation of the gas tungsten arc weld from the base metal with complete dissolution of the HAZ. A specimen from the resistance seam weld remote from the gas tungsten arc weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of 18 to 20 HRC were left uncoated for the test. All four bolts were assembled in a static test fixture and tightened to a torque value equal to 90% of their yield strength and then intermittently dipped in an acidified solution of 3.5% NaCl. Intermittent dipping consisted of a 10-min total immersion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. Standard HIC samples (3 per plate) of 11 mm thickness, 20 mm width, and 100 mm length were tested in solution saturated with H 2 S and a pH of 3.5 as per NACE TM0284-96. Samples were polished to a 360 mesh, degreased and immersed in the test solutions. After the tests (72 h duration) the samples were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... they are immersed. However, a problem developed when several of the brass tubes cracked transversely, allowing cooling water to mix with the oil. The presence of a tensile stress, intergranular cracks, and a corrosion product suggested the tube failures resulted from stress-corrosion cracking. The main corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., was employed as surface preparation procedure. Metallographic studies were performed in as-polished sections and after immersion etching in nital 2% solution, using an inverted optical microscope, while microhardness testing was performed using a Vickers microindentation device under 200 gf (1.962 N) applied...