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immersion plating

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... in a cyanide bath for 12 hours at 930 deg C. After tempering for 2 h at 170 to 175 deg C, the copper plate was removed by immersing in an acid bath for 45 min. The investigations found the microstructure, hardness, and chemistry all met the specification. The case depth was approximately 0.75 mm to 1.0 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Several stainless steel bolts used on a Titan Space Launch Vehicle broke at the shank and failure was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking. But results could not be duplicated in the laboratory with salt-solution immersion tests until the real culprit was established: the secondary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (Na 2 SO 4 ) solution ( Ref 4 ). The emf series is a table that lists in order the standard electrode potentials of specified electrochemical reactions. The potentials are measured against a standard reference electrode when the metal is immersed in a solution of its own ions at unit activity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... blemishes at the same locations as the underlying pores. In addition, a theoretical foundation can be used to demonstrate how the pores can cause blemishes on the plated surfaces. The plating process requires that the castings be immersed in several liquid baths for cleaning and surface preparation, as well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to 9 ml of sterile 1% peptone water and stirred for 1 h at 37 °C. After 1-h stirring, the samples were subjected to serial dilution and plated on B4 medium (g/l): Calcium acetate 2.5: Yeast extracts 4.0, and Glucose, 10) by the pour plate method as described previously by Baskar et al. [ 18...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a standard reference electrode when the metal is immersed in a solution of its own ions at unit activity ( Table 1 ). Similar to the galvanic series, it is a list of metals and alloys arranged according to their relative potentials in a given environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examples. Fatigue fracture in threaded fasteners and fretting in bolted machine parts are also discussed. The article provides a description of the different types of corrosion, such as atmospheric corrosion and liquid-immersion corrosion, in threaded fasteners. It also provides information on stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Following disruption of the austenitic stainless steel basket of a hydro-extractor used for the separation of crystals of salt (sodium chloride) from glycerin, samples of the broken parts were analyzed. Examination revealed that the fish-plates joining the reinforcing hoops...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to cool the oil in which they are immersed. However, a problem developed when several of the brass tubes cracked transversely, allowing cooling water to mix with the oil. The presence of a tensile stress, intergranular cracks, and a corrosion product suggested the tube failures resulted from stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and copper alloys. Ferrules that had been stress relieved after forming but not assembled to fuses passed the mercurous nitrate test; similar unassembled ferrules that had not been stress relieved after forming cracked before the required 30 min immersion period was completed. The mercurous nitrate test...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in chemical process streams. All of the above reactions are quite similar; they consume electrons. The above partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed in water or seawater that is exposed to the atmosphere...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... max ). According to theory, the maximum shear stress is located at a depth equal to 0.78 α beneath the surface, in the case of stationary roll/plate contact, where 2 α is the contact zone width. Repetitive surface contact results in pits, wear debris, and fatigue cracks leading to severe surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of carbide films around prior martensite plates. Alloy steels undergo temper brittleness or a reduction in toughness that occurs when the steel is tempered in (or slowly cooled through) the temperature range of 510 to 593 °C (950 to 1100 °F). This phenomenon does not occur in plain carbon steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... if sufficient stress was present in the failed connector bodies, exemplar connectors from the same manufacturing lot were cleaned, degreased, and then immersed in mercurous nitrate solution for 30 min, in accordance with ASTM B154-05 [ 3 ]. After exposure the connectors were washed, wiped, and examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... compression plates, and hollow spinal rods. Some of the failure mechanisms that were identified include corrosive attack, corrosion plus erosion-corrosion, inclusions and stress gaps, production impurities, design flaws, and manufacturing defects. Failure prevention and mitigation strategies are also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Several cases of embrittlement failure are analyzed, including liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) of an aluminum alloy pipe in a natural gas plant, solid metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE) of a brass valve in an aircraft engine oil cooler, LME of a cadmium-plated steel screw...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... 16.8 0.17 Spacer 0.12 0.29 0.27 1.20 0.3 16.4 0.21 Nut 0.40 0.04 0.41 0.76 0.1 0.29 0.03 Although the stud specification recommends the use of nuts also made from stainless steel, in this assembly cadmium plated carbon steel nuts were used. The relevant standard for carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in chemical process streams. All the aforementioned reactions are quite similar: they consume electrons. The aforementioned partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed in water or seawater that is exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... according to NACE TM0284-96, which describes a methodology, used in the evaluation of HIC susceptible of steels [ 4 ]. Standard HIC samples (3 per plate) of 11 mm thickness, 20 mm width, and 100 mm length were tested in solution saturated with H 2 S and a pH of 3.5 as per NACE TM0284-96. Samples were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , 1968 13. Glackin J. , “Corrosion Resistance Properties and Susceptibility to Stress Alloying of Tin Plated EWB 22 Bolts and Tin-Nickel Plated NAS 624 Bolts,” SPS Laboratory Report 974, SPS Laboratories , 1963 14. Baumgartner T.C. , “Fastener Performance at Elevated...