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hydrostatic pressure effects

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the transformation kinetics of 50CV4 steel. B , bainite; F. P., ferrite-pearlite transformation; M s , martensite start temperature. Source: Ref 7 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... be designed in accordance with the ASME Code ( Ref 5 ), while taking into account the annealing effect of brazing. The brazing process must be standardized to minimize the degree of annealing. The component should be subjected to hydrostatic pressure testing at a pressure 1.25 times greater than...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that settles on exposed surfaces as they are being subjected to severe mechanical loads imparted during lift-off. Failure analyses were performed on 304 stainless steel tubing that ruptured under such conditions, while carrying various gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, and breathing air. Hydrostatic testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A large pressure vessel designed for use in an ammonia plant failed during hydrostatic testing. It was fabricated from ten Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel plates which were rolled and welded to form ten cylindrical shell sections and three forgings of similar composition. The fracture surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and helium leak (under pressure) tests, the tanks were shipped to the installation site. After a period of storage, a side nozzle on one of the tanks was found to have broken during transit. It was also noticed that the tank contained service water that probably had not been drained after hydrostatic testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials or Pressure Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Products” is discussed as an excellent example of service life assessment ( Ref 3 ). Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) can also be used to predict long-term creep data. Creep modulus versus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be used to reveal imperfections of this type. Fortunately, relatively few imperfections produced during manufacture escape detection and lead to failures in service. The combination of eddy-current and hydrostatic testing, whether conducted by the fabricator or tube supplier, effectively minimizes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A 150 mm (6 in.) schedule 80S type 304 stainless steel pipe (11 mm, or 0.432 in., wall thickness), which had served as an equalizer line in the primary loop of a pressurized-water reactor, was found to contain several circumferential cracks 50 to 100 mm (2 to 4 in.) long. Two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... provides an overview of bearing materials, and then presents the various lubrication mechanisms: hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, boundary lubrication, elastohydrodynamic, and squeeze-film lubrication. The article describes the effect of debris and contaminant particles in bearings. The steps involved in failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the viscosity. Some lubricants have fatty acids added in order to achieve desirable friction properties. Others have additives that are chemically reactive under extreme pressure to prevent scuffing. These chemical reactions are usually carefully controlled to minimize detrimental effects. Each type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to reveal imperfections of this type. Fortunately, relatively few imperfections produced during manufacture escape detection and lead to failures in service. The combination of eddy-current and hydrostatic testing, whether conducted by the manufacturer or tube supplier, effectively minimizes service...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... more difficult. Cavitation Mechanisms Cavitation can occur if the pressure on a liquid is reduced sufficiently to cause formation of vapor-filled voids, or cavities (bubbles), even at room temperature. When the liquid that contains cavities is subsequently subjected to higher hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the effect of using unsuitable alloys, metallurgical discontinuities, fabrication practices, and stress raisers on the failure of a pressure vessel. It provides information on pressure vessels made of composite materials and their welding practices. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-penetration autogenous gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW) joint The outer container and closure weld were intended to comply, to the extent feasible, with the rules for design, fabrication, and examination designated by the ASME Section VIII code. Post closure-weld hydrostatic testing is not practicable due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of circumstances. Intermittent operation can also affect the life of pressure vessels. Long periods of inactivity greatly enhance the probability of internal or external corrosion. During long shutdown periods, a common effective practice is to pressurize the system with nitrogen, to avoid corrosion. Wet lay...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... scenario for material degradation. For deep-sea applications, such as submersibles and marine hydraulic machinery, hydrostatic pressure can have a significant, and irreversible, effect on mechanical properties and material microstructure. For every 100 m (330 ft) increase in seawater depth, hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.../user intends to complete a hydrostatic pressure test at a temperature lower than the original test temperature. Historical Failures The following is a brief summary of a few notable industry failures that were found to be a result of brittle fracture. Additional historical failures are also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... h = ( 1 + ν ) ( σ x + σ y ) 3 still exists. The effect of the hydrostatic stress is to raise the stress level at which yield occurs, causing it to approach the fracture stress. In a constant-volume material (metals, Ceramics), the hydrostatic stress cannot cause yield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as: T = [ σ h 0 0 0 σ h 0 0 0 σ h ] Even if Poisson’s ratio is unequal to 0.5, a hydrostatic stress whose magnitude is: σ h   = ( 1   +   ν ) (   σ x   +   σ y )   3 still exists. The effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... on the mechanical behavior of polymers are hydrostatic pressure (or the hydrostatic component of stress) and the aging effect that polymers often undergo at room temperature, depending on their thermal and mechanical history. This article describes the general aspects of creep, stress relaxation, and yielding...