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hydrostatic pressure effects

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... be designed in accordance with the ASME Code ( Ref 5 ), while taking into account the annealing effect of brazing. The brazing process must be standardized to minimize the degree of annealing. The component should be subjected to hydrostatic pressure testing at a pressure 1.25 times greater than...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Hydrostatic testing indicated a burst strength of 13,500 psi for the intact sections of tubing. Scanning electron microscopy and metallographic examination revealed that the tubing failed due to corrosion pitting exacerbated by stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The pitting originated on the outer surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... example had a high discontinuity stress that was not taken into account in the design. This discontinuity stress exceeded the tensile strength of the carbon steel shell material. Although initial cracking probably occurred during hydrostatic testing, the vessel operated at such low pressure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and helium leak (under pressure) tests, the tanks were shipped to the installation site. After a period of storage, a side nozzle on one of the tanks was found to have broken during transit. It was also noticed that the tank contained service water that probably had not been drained after hydrostatic testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A large pressure vessel designed for use in an ammonia plant failed during hydrostatic testing. It was fabricated from ten Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel plates which were rolled and welded to form ten cylindrical shell sections and three forgings of similar composition. The fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the effect of using unsuitable alloys, metallurgical discontinuities, fabrication practices, and stress raisers on the failure of a pressure vessel. It provides information on pressure vessels made of composite materials and their welding practices...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... additives that are chemically reactive under extreme pressure to prevent scuffing. These chemical reactions are usually carefully controlled to minimize detrimental effects. Each type of additive in oil produces selected effects that are too numerous to tabulate here. One effect is to alter friction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A 150 mm (6 in.) schedule 80S type 304 stainless steel pipe (11 mm, or 0.432 in., wall thickness), which had served as an equalizer line in the primary loop of a pressurized-water reactor, was found to contain several circumferential cracks 50 to 100 mm (2 to 4 in.) long. Two...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... h = ( 1 + ν ) ( σ x + σ y ) 3 still exists. The effect of the hydrostatic stress is to raise the stress level at which yield occurs, causing it to approach the fracture stress. In a constant-volume material (metals, Ceramics), the hydrostatic stress cannot cause yield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as: T = [ σ h 0 0 0 σ h 0 0 0 σ h ] Even if Poisson’s ratio is unequal to 0.5, a hydrostatic stress whose magnitude is: σ h   = ( 1   +   ν ) (   σ x   +   σ y )   3 still exists. The effect...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis more difficult. Cavitation Mechanisms Cavitation can occur if the pressure on a liquid is reduced sufficiently to cause formation of vapor-filled voids, or cavities (bubbles), even at room temperature. When the liquid that contains cavities is subsequently subjected to higher hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the root cause of an overload failure. It also presents examples of thermally and environmentally induced embrittlement effects that can alter the overload fracture behavior of metals. atomic structure brittle cracking crack propagation crystalline structure ductile cracking ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in permanent deformation. A normal stress applied to the body causes only continued separation of atoms and therefore brittle cleavage fracture. Fig. 2 Schematic figure showing the effect of a normal stress, σ, and a shear stress, τ, on a crystalline material. Application of a normal stress increases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the slip plane causes alternate rupture and self-healing of the interatomic bonds, resulting in permanent deformation. A normal stress applied to the body causes only continued separation of atoms and therefore brittle cleavage fracture. Fig. 2 Schematic figure showing the effect of a normal stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for reducing the likelihood of overload fractures are included. The article focuses primarily on the contribution of embrittlement to overload failure. The embrittling phenomena are described and differentiated by their causes, effects, and remedial methods, so that failure characteristics can be directly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... hydrostatic testing is not practicable due to the container contents and the lack of a canister wall penetration. In an effort to establish an equivalent level of weld quality, sensitive leak testing of each production closure was required. Further, a periodic (1 in 25 production closures) radiographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Selected Reference Selected Reference • Vander Voort G.F. , Metallographic Techniques in Failure Analysis , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 498 – 515 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532 Gun tubes are built to resist pressures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ) as a function of crack size for crack types A, B, and C. Δ K thermal , cyclic stress intensity due to thermal stresses; Δ K p , cyclic stress intensity due to pressure stresses Fig. 17 Effect of hold time on the fatigue crack growth rate properties of 2.25Cr-1Mo cast steel. The 2 h hold time tests...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Causes of failure in this type of weld are oxides on the bond line and lack of fusion due to too low a temperature or too little upsetting pressure. These defects reduce the effective thickness of the weld. Regardless of the welding process used, the investigation of weld failures usually involves...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... segregation originates in alloys during the solidification stage. Such deviations from the nominal composition are due to convection currents in the liquid, gravity effects, and redistribution of the solute during the formation of dendrites. Solute rejection at the solid-liquid interface during dendrite...