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hydrogen sulfide testing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... acidic, containing citric and phosphoric acids and having a pH of 2.4 to 2.5. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, immersion testing in the soft drink, and 100x unetched micrographs) supported the conclusion that the failure was caused by the size and distribution of sulfide stringers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... after they were in service for three to four months. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if the failure mode was hydrogen-stress cracking, if sulfides accelerate the failure, if heat treatment can improve the resistance against this failure mode, and if the type 305 austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the cause of failure and provide preventive measures. The valve body was made of A216-WCC cast carbon steel. Its inner surface was covered with cracks stemming from surface pits. Investigators concluded that the failure was caused by a combination of hydrogen-induced corrosion cracking and sulfide stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... temperatures may drop. This measure was ultimately recommended, deemed more effective and cheaper. Blistering Cracking (fracturing) Hydrogen sulfide Natural gas Pipelines Fe-0.22C Hydrogen damage and embrittlement A welded natural gas line of 400 mm O.D. and 9 mm wall thickness made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... by fatigue cracking ( Fig. 1 ). Sulfide stress cracking is defined as brittle failure by cracking under the combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of water and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). The cracking mode was ascertained through comparison of this failure to known laboratory tested...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... small to reduce tension-test ductility, hydrogen-induced delayed fracture may occur. Although hydrogen embrittlement has been evaluated extensively, it takes on several forms. The various forms or manifestations of hydrogen embrittlement and the terminology associated with it can be very confusing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... steels with tensile strengths of 1240 MPa (180 ksi) or more. A few parts per million of hydrogen dissolved in steel can cause hairline cracking and loss of tensile ductility. Even when the quantity of gas in solution is too small to reduce tension-test ductility, hydrogen-induced delayed fracture may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was made. Subsurface cracks were found to be zigzag and discontinuous as well as intergranular in nature. A mixed mode of fracture involving ductile and brittle flat facets was observed. Micropores and rod-shaped manganese sulfide inclusions were also noted. The material had a hydrogen content of 22 ppm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the “sulfate” found in the scrubbing water was actually sulfide (including hydrogen sulfide) and was the main cause of corrosion. Graphitic corrosion Pump impellers Sulfides Gray iron Dealloying/selective leaching A Cast iron pump impeller showed strong corrosion after an operating period...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sustained over a six-week period in biologically active, wet, high-clay soil as a function of iron sulfide present under anaerobic conditions in laboratory tests. SRB, sulfate-reducing bacteria Sparging test cells with air caused a short burst of very severe corrosion accompanied by the oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are able to use hydrogen in their metabolism ( Ref 23 ). Severe corrosion cells develop as sulfide, produced by the microbial reduction of sulfate, combines with ferrous ions, released by the corrosion process, to produce insoluble black iron sulfides: (Eq 7) 4 Fe + SO 4 2 − + 8 H...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... with it by shrinkage at 530 deg C. The connectors were made of SAE 4140 Cr-Mo steel. The material for the rod pipes was Fe-0.4C-1Mn steel. Structural stresses played a role in the cracking. Iron sulfide formed on the fracture planes and flake-like stress cracks occurred in the steel. The hydrogen sulfide content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... whose formation is caused by the precipitation of hydrogen 4 . Fig. 4 Section of surface of a crank arm after magnetic particle testing. 2 3 × Fig. 5 Same as Fig. 4 , etch: Copper ammonium chloride solution according to Heyn. 2 3 × Fig. 6 Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... as a replacement. Connectors, corrosion Hydrogen sulfide, environment Oil field equipment, materials selection Pipe, corrosion Sour gas, environment Stress corrosion 9% Ni steel Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Background During a workover of an oil well, the 9% Ni steel production tubing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... pipe, both seamless and ERW, for the production tubing string in oil and gas wells. Typically, the wells are relatively low pressure and low temperature, and they produce water as well as hydrocarbons. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide are also common constituents of the produced fluids...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of type II manganese sulfides, then cracking results. The presence of hydrogen in the weldment can also enhance the likelihood of cracking. In this case, the deposition of an unbalanced groove weld where rotation can occur around the root, together with the superimposition of thermal strains from the one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper alloy (C83600) impellers from two different feed pumps that supplied water to a 2-year-old boiler failed repeatedly. Examination by various methods indicated that the failures were caused by sulfide attack that concentrated in shrinkage voids in the castings. Two...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ammonia can be very corrosive environments. Another cause of inadvertent general corrosion is improper chemical cleaning using uninhibited acids, excessive temperatures, or prolonged contact time. Water used to wash fire-side deposits where high-sulfur fuel oil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Results of failure analyses of two aircraft crankshafts are described. These crankshafts were forged from AMS 6414 (similar composition to AISI 4340) vacuum arc remelted steels with sulfur contents of 0.003% (low sulfur) and 0.0005% (ultra-low sulfur). A grain boundary sulfide...