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hydrogen pinholes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., as a hyperstoichiometric mixture of hydrogen to oxygen is injected into the MCC. An unacceptable number of pinholes developed near the throat of the MCC liner after a short time, allowing excessive hydrogen to leak into the combustion chamber. These pinholes were confined to an arc of less than 50 mm (2 in.) along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... B 100 Cavities with generally rounded, smooth walls perceptible to the naked eye (blowholes, pinholes) B 110 Class B 100 cavities internal to the casting, not extending to the surface, discernible only by special methods, machining, or fracture of the casting B 111 (a) Internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are very susceptible to porosity from hydrogen. The most common method for removing hydrogen from aluminum and copper, which can also be used for removing hydrogen and nitrogen from cast iron, is inert gas flushing. Hydrogen pinholes in cast iron are small, spherical, or pear-shaped cavities about 3 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... still implies a tensile strength in excess of 220Ksi ( 2 ). A necessary requirement for hydrogen absorption at the surface of a pipeline is a condition of coating rupture. The rupture may take the form of larger holidays (or holes) in the coating or very fine pinhole porosity. Local regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is an unpredictable length. There is generally absence of any significant swelling, but occasional bubbles of hydrogen may be evolved, and the pinhole in the aluminum may be discolored by small particles of UO 2 . The propagation stage is characterized by the growth of a blister at the pinhole. Once swelling starts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... describes what damage is present. Damage mechanism: The specific series of events that describe both how the damage was incurred and the resulting consequences. Examples of damage mechanisms include high-temperature creep, hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking, and sulfidation. Damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and producing hydrogen Combination of high pressure, high inside surface metal temperature, and high local concentrations of mono- or disodium phosphate Leak type Pinhole leaks or thick-lipped rupture Thick-lipped window-shaped rupture Pinhole leaks or thick-lipped rupture Locations High heat flux...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... If the hydrogen content of the molten steel exceeds the solubility limit of hydrogen in solid iron, the hydrogen will be rejected during solidification, and this leads to pinhole formation and porosity in steel. Just a few parts per million (ppm) of hydrogen dissolved in steel can cause hairline cracks (flakes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-control program. Hydrogen sulfide gas is very aggressive to reinforced concrete structures in wastewater treatment plants. Figure 5 provides views of severe corrosion of a wastewater tunnel structure. Note the failed lining repairs. Structures of concern are sludge storage tanks, chambers, and head...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at welded joints because of overstress during normal operation. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 15 Titanium heat-exchanger tube (ASTM B337, grade 2) that became embrittled and failed because of absorption of hydrogen and oxygen at elevated temperatures. (a) Section of the titanium tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... flange in refinery piping. Fig. 1 Cathodic reactions in anaerobic corrosion. To escape the metal surface, atomic hydrogen must either enter the metal matrix or form molecular hydrogen, which can escape into solution. Fig. 2 Molecular hydrogen, H 2 , released from the cathodic surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the surface that was denickelified (top) and unaffected base metal (bottom). Etched with equal parts nitric and acetic acid. Original magnification: 375× Fig. 16 Titanium heat-exchanger tube (ASTM B337, grade 2) that became embrittled and failed because of absorption of hydrogen and oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the material is stressed above or below any ductile-to-brittle transition temperature below which relatively low-energy fractures can occur. Other degradation mechanisms, such as corrosion and oxidation; stress corrosion; erosion from flowing gases, liquids, and solids; hydrogen damage; creep and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Overload failure by brittle cracking mechanisms Overload failure by ductile cracking mechanisms Plastic collapse Buckling Fatigue Corrosion fatigue Corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Hydrogen-induced cracking If elevated temperatures were involved, then creep deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of cold cracking in base metal. TSN, thermal severity number Fig. 9 Hydrogen solubility in iron as a function of temperature. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 11 Toe cracking on the flange side of the flange-to-pipe fillet weld, showing the weld metal, heat-affected zone, and unaffected base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to hydrogen attack. Original magnification: 400× Fig. 27 Close-up view of tube at failure location showing rectangular window-type rupture with thick lips Fig. 28 Photograph of failed tube sample having window-type rupture with thick lips and uneven contours Fig. 29 Close-up view...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in this Volume discuss analysis and prevention of several types of failures in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “ Stress-Corrosion Cracking ,” “ Liquid Metal and Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement ,” “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ,” “ Corrosive Wear Failures ,” “ Biological...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and prevention of several types of failure in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “Stress-Corrosion Cracking,” “Liquid-Metal and Solid-Metal Induced Embrittlement,” “Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement,” “Corrosive Wear Failures,” “Biological Corrosion Failures,” and “High...