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hydrogen permeation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... revealed a fissure in one of the welded seams, which according to microscopic examination, originated in the base material of the container. Higher magnification revealed a narrow zone adjacent to the weld seam permeated with intergranular cracks, the result of hydrogen attack. It also showed the structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... fracture under low stress when exposed to hydrogen in a corrosive environment. Nascent (or atomic) hydrogen is formed by the corrosion process (evident on the fracture surface of the part under investigation), and can migrate into the material causing failure by embrittlement. This hydrogen permeates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A welded natural gas line of 400 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed steel with 0.22C had to be removed from service after four months because of a pipe burst. Metallographic examination showed the pipe section located next to the gas entrance was permeated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or abiotic environments ( Ref 45 ). It has also been noted that hydrogen permeation through steel under CP in artificial seawater was greater for a mixed culture of bacteria producing 160 ppm of sulfide than it was for the same concentration of sulfide without bacteria. Attempts to demonstrate these effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Devanathan M.A.V. and Stachurski Z. , The Mechanism of Hydrogen Evolution on Iron in Acid Solutions by Determination of Permeation Rates , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 111 ( No. 5 ), 1964 , p 619 – 623 , 10.1149/1.2426195 11. Usher K.M. , Kaksonen A.H. , Cole I...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the epoxy resin encapsulant. The incompletely cured resin possesses imperfect macromolecular network, which is easily permeated by water molecules in the humidity in the atmosphere during storage in uncontrolled environment. The ester groups are hydrolyzed by humidity, and the polymers become softened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... resistance due to a reduction in hydrogen permeation rate ( Ref 4 ). These examples illustrate the use of a damage classification system as an aid to the analyst. Various systems are possible, and different analysts have different approaches. What is most important is the analyst’s thought process...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature has on SSC resistance. (Increasing temperatures above ambient improves SSC resistance due to reduction in hydrogen permeation rate, Ref 4 .) These examples illustrate the use of a damage classification system as an aid to the analyst. Various systems are possible and different analysts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... by which they arise is not definitely known. It is probable that hydrogen is involved in their formation as in that of flakes 4 . Since, unlike flakes, they generally occur in cast ingots or shaped castings they are called cast state flakes. Here again, however, the grain boundaries must be occupied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and susceptibility to hydrogen absorption. Advantages of electroplating include the variety of coatings available, versatility of applications, variety of application methods, galvanic protection, color options for aluminum, precise thickness control, ductility, and formability after coating. Disadvantages include...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “Forms of Corrosion” in this Volume). The form (or appearance) of attack also may not be unique, because several corrosion mechanisms may operate at the same time for a given mode or appearance of corrosion. Moreover, several additional mechanisms of attack, including hydrogen damage, “environmentally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., polypropylene; PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PA, polyamide; PI, polyimide; PET, polyethylene terephthalate. Source: Ref 7 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 2 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Property Gel permeation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the deterioration of metal components and result in failure, notably of pressure vessels and pipes. Under certain conditions of temperature and hydrogen partial pressure, atomic hydrogen permeates the steel and reduces iron carbide (Fe 3 C) to form methane (CH 4 ). The methane does not diffuse from the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... resulting from hydrogen damage. The interior surface displays gouging adjacent to failure lip. Courtesy of Electric Power Research Institute Fig. 9 (a) Short-term and (b) long-term overheating of boiler tubes. Long-term overheating usually is caused by creep as the microstructure of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and copper. In determining if gas evolution can cause porosity, the thermodynamics for the reactions must be evaluated, as discussed in the article “Gases in Metals” in Casting, Volume 15 of ASM Handbook . The gases in cast iron that can cause porosity are hydrogen and nitrogen. Aluminum and copper...