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hydrogen embrittlement

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... raised suspicion of hydrogen embrittlement. It appeared that fracture in service progressed transgranularly to produce delayed failure under dynamic loading. The pickling process used to remove heat scale was suspected to be the source of hydrogen on the surface of the bolt. The manufacturer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0007736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., and chloride was detected in some of the pits. The test also revealed an initial crack that was probably caused by hydrogen embrittlement. Since no chloride was detected on the fracture surface, and none was detected in the overlying concrete, the corrosion appears to have begun prior to the wires' placement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... the diffusion of hydrogen into the metal in the cracked region. The resultant embrittlement and associated fissuring was established to have caused the failure. The hydrogen was diffused out by wrapping the vessel in asbestos and heating followed by cooling as prescribed by ASME code. Hydrogen reformers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the failed screws and two unused, exemplar fasteners from the same lot supported the conclusion that the cap screws appear to have failed due to hydrogen embrittlement, as revealed by delayed cracking and intergranular fracture morphology. Static brittle overload fracture occurred due to the tension preload...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to minimize hydrogen embrittlement. The bolts broke at the junction of the head and shank. The nuts were, theoretically, installed fingertight. The failure was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement that had not been satisfactorily alleviated by subsequent baking. The presence of burrs on the threads prevented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... was inadequate procedure, which resulted in bending moments being applied to the bolt threads. Acid pickling Bolts Cadmium plating Landing gear Torque 4340 UNS G43400 Surface treatment related failures Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Fig. 1 shows a failed beam from a landing gear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to 1379 MPa (180 to 200 ksi) with a hardness of 39 to 43 HRC, followed by cadmium plating. The bolt that failed and several that did not were examined. It was found that failure of the bolts was the result of time-dependent hydrogen embrittlement. Had the remaining bolts been torqued to the normal stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... mode, indicating hydrogen embrittlement. An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of hydrogen embrittlement in the various lots of cadmium-plated 8740 steel fasteners. It was found that hydrogen embrittlement was caused by the use of a bright, impervious cadmium electroplate that hindered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0091475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...). Investigation (visual inspection and 2400x/6600x TEM analysis) supported the conclusion that failure was caused by hydrogen embrittlement, not SCC as might have been suspected. No recommendations were made. Cleavage Fractographs Stress corrosion cracking 431 UNS S43100 Hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Forgings Rings 4140 UNS G41400 Intergranular fracture Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Fracture of a cadmium-plated accumulator ring forged from 4140 steel was discovered during inspection and disassembly of a hydraulic-accumulator system stored at a depot. The ring had broken into five small...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Hydrogen embrittlement is the brittleness affecting copper and copper alloys containing oxygen which develops during heat treatment at temperatures of about 400 deg C (752 deg F) and above in an atmosphere containing hydrogen. The phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement of copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Diode leads that were to be made from OFHC copper were instead made from copper with high oxygen content. The leads had a nickel underplating, a gold final plating, and were brazed to the diode package in a hydrogen atmosphere. After brazing, the leads became embrittled. SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with the work table. SEM fractography and metallographic examinations conducted on the bolt revealed hairline indications along grain facets on the fracture surface and stepwise cracking in the material, both indicating failure by hydrogen embrittlement. Similar draw-in bolts were discarded and replaced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and cracking was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement. Measurement of hydrogen content in the raw material prior to fabrication was recommended. Careful control of acid pickling procedures for descaling of the hot-rolled bars was also deemed necessary. Inclusions Subsurface cracks 38KhA Hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... unfailed cap screw indicated that the screws had failed by hydrogen embrittlement. The plating process was the likely source of the hydrogen. It was recommended that the remainder of the cap screws from the same lot as the failed screws be baked at approximately 190 deg C (375 deg F) for 24 h...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was an embrittled region approximately 25 mm (1 in.) from the end of the coupling. The source of the embrittlement was determined to be hydrogen charging during tin plating. Changes in the plating process were recommended. Casing (material) Gas wells Petroleum engineering Pipe fittings API 5C P-110 API...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Specific types of hydrogen damage Table 1 Specific types of hydrogen damage Specific damage process/mechanism Most common in Comments Hydrogen embrittlement High-strength steels and heavily cold-worked low-carbon steels, ambient temperatures Needs sustained stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the classification of hydrogen damage. Some specific types of the damage are hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, and cracking from hydride formation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... impulse test. Both part types were made of 15-5 PH (UNS S15500) precipitation hardening stainless steel. Hydrogen embrittlement cracking was the likely cause of failure for both part types. Cracking of the as-fabricated parts was ultimately prevented by changing the manufacturing procedure to allow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 76 mm (3 in.) type 304 stainless steel tube that was used as a heat shield and water nozzle support in a hydrogen gas plant quench pot failed in a brittle manner. Visual examination of a sample from the failed tube showed that one lip of the section was eroded from service...