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hydrogen blistering

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... steel plate. Some of the blisters were pierced by drilling a hole in the center and at the same time applying a small flame. In several cases combustion of the escaping gas caused minor explosions, a result characteristic of hydrogen. Etching showed the material to be a low-carbon steel in the partly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... microcracks between adjacent discontinuities supported a hydrogen blistering diagnosis. Adhesive joints Blistering Chemical milling Extrusions Microcracking Pitting (corrosion) 2024-T3 2024-T4 UNS A92024 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Fatigue fracture Fatigue Microcracking in Alclad 2024...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the classification of hydrogen damage. Some specific types of the damage are hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, and cracking from hydride formation. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for cause of failure. First section showed strong pit or trench-like attack in the welding seam on the inner surface. A bluish-black corrosion product adhered to the pits. The second section showed small blisters at the welding seam. The metallographic examination of the first section showed welding seam...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failures Defects in the pipe body Mechanical damage Environmental causes Corrosion (external or internal) Hydrogen-stress cracking External stress corrosion cracking Internal sulfide-stress cracking Hydrogen blistering Fatigue Miscellaneous causes Secondary loads...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the form of IG or transgranular cracking or blistering. Blistering is most often associated with the melting or heat treatment of aluminum, where reaction with water vapor produces hydrogen. Blistering due to hydrogen is frequently associated with grain-boundary precipitates or the formation of small voids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in aluminum alloys may take the form of IG or transgranular cracking or blistering. Blistering is most often associated with the melting or heat treatment of aluminum, in which reaction with water vapor produces hydrogen. Blistering due to hydrogen is frequently associated with grain-boundary precipitates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... temperatures may drop. This measure was ultimately recommended, deemed more effective and cheaper. Blistering Cracking (fracturing) Hydrogen sulfide Natural gas Pipelines Fe-0.22C Hydrogen damage and embrittlement A welded natural gas line of 400 mm O.D. and 9 mm wall thickness made...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compounds. Specific types of hydrogen damage, some of which occur only in specific alloys under specific conditions ( Table 1 ), are classified in this article as: Hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen-induced blistering Cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen Hydrogen attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the screw led to H2-induced blistering/cracking. The high strength of the threaded region of the adjusting screw increased the failure propensity. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...), HE, hydrogen blistering and loss of tensile ductility, particularly in large steel castings, ingots, blooms, and slabs [ 5 ]. Incidences of catastrophic cracking in low nickel austenitic stainless steel coils at a customer’s end during routine unwinding/uncoiling of the material came to light...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... portion was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement that occurred during chrome plating. Chromium plating Piston rods Residual stress Fe-0.3C-3.0Cr-0.4Mo Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Surface treatment related failures A few Cr-Mo (C 0.3%, Cr 3.0%, Mo 0.4%) steel piston rods from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to be propagating through inclusions ( Fig. 8 ). A closer look at it and other cracks revealed that they initiated at inclusion sites ( Fig. 9 ). Figure 10 shows blisters around the inclusions. These blisters would have been formed as a result of precipitation of molecular hydrogen at the matrix/particle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... small blisters were observed on the inner surface near the weld after attempts had been made to repair the crack. Fig. 1 Vessel made of ASTM A204, grade C, steel that failed as the result of hydrogen embrittlement. (a) Portion of tank; Detail A shows locations of cracks, at welds joining shell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... 33 ). Fig. 33 (a) Ti-6Al-4V with tungsten inclusion. Kroll’s etch. (b) Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy graph of tungsten inclusion Entrapped hydrogen can expand during subsequent heat treatment, leaving voids (blisters) and distorting the metal ( Fig. 34 ). Fig. 34...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as for the actual plating deposition. Porosity that is linked to the surface can trap liquids from the cleaning and surface preparation baths, and these liquids are usually quite acidic. The trapped acid may initiate corrosion and generate hydrogen gas as a result of the cathodic process. The evolved gas causes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... reaction (generally a metal dissolution or oxide formation) and a cathodic reduction (such as proton or oxygen reduction) proceed simultaneously. In most normal water environments, the overall reaction for aluminum corrosion is reaction with water to form hydrogen and aluminum hydroxide which has very low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... an embrittlement-type failure. Multiple crack origin sites are a common feature associated with SCC, whereas a failure attributed solely to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) would normally consist of a single large crack. In addition, HE fracture surfaces tend to be free of heavy oxides and corrosion, while SCC surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for protecting short sections of slurry pipelines, pumps, elbows, and other equipment ( Ref 36 ). However, the length of the protection must be kept sufficiently short to prevent overprotection and subsequent hydrogen blistering of the protected surface. The throwing power of cathodic protection, either...