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hydrofluoric acid

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Investigation (visual inspection, 95x unetched images, chemical testing with a 5% salt spray, chemical testing with sodium hypochlorite at three strength levels, samples were also pickled in an aqueous solution containing 15 vol% concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and 3 vol% concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... history of the part showed the tenacious oxide film formed by the affinity of niobium for oxygen - even when heat treated in a vacuum – was removed with a combination of strong acids: nitric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and lactic, resulting in the contaminants found on the surface. Thus, residues...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Spectrochemical analysis of the corrosion products showed the components to be only those of AISI 316 and oxygen. Thus speculation about attack by hydrofluoric acid formed by a reaction between water and fluorine was ruled out. Furthermore, microscopy revealed precipitates at the grain boundaries, indicative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... near the trailing edge of SX turbine blade casting at ∼ 5% airfoil span. Casting contains no grain boundaries. Etchant: 33% glycerol, 33% nitric acid, 33% acetic acid, and 1–3% hydrofluoric acid Another common microstructural observation for stress-rupture events in nickel-based superalloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in centrifugal compressors have been well documented ( Ref 1 ). The reaction dissociates the refrigerant into carbon and hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, which consume aluminum. The reaction requires the presence of a film-free aluminum surface, which can result from either melting or mechanical abrasion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... in Figure 4 . Zirconium and zirconium alloys are extremely resistant to corrosives, including the aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) service environment experienced by the subject impellers. Only a few environmental species will attack zirconium. These include hydrofluoric acid (HF), ferric chloride (FeCl 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a phenolic mount and a piece of 6061-T6 aluminum etched with dilute aqueous hydrofluoric acid. Nomarski differential interference contrast reveals the curvature at the edge of the specimen and water stains (arrows) along the edge of the specimen. Figure 6 shows a high-speed steel specimen in a phenolic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... shrinkage gap between a phenolic mount and a piece of 6061-T6 aluminum etched with dilute aqueous hydrofluoric acid. Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC) reveals the curvature at the edge of the specimen and water stains (arrows) along the edge of the specimen. Figure 14 shows a high-speed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the drain tube. The CIM was disassembled, and the vessel was cleaned with hydrofluoric acid to remove most of the residual glass in order to perform the metallurgical evaluation. Cleaning took several days to complete. The failure analysis demonstrated that long term elevated temperature exposure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... can turn into a pitting mechanism if the microcells develop enough to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. The uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. Uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe the initial stages of micropits being formed by these microcells. Fig. 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...% hydrofluoric acid. Casting contains no grain boundaries. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 13 (a) Heater tube that failed due to stress rupture. (b) and (c) Stress-rupture voids near the fracture. Source: Ref 18 Depending on the alloy, temperature, and strain rate, stress-rupture fracture can either...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion, occurs in the temperature range of 650 to 750 °C (1200 to 1380 °F), where SO 3 is relatively high or melts are deficient in the oxide ion concentration, leading to acidic fluxing that results in pitting attack. Sulfides are found in the pitted area ( Ref 25 ). Low-temperature hot corrosion may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing liquids or gases Depending on the type of hydrogen-metal interaction, hydrogen damage of metal manifests itself in one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In the refinery, hydrogen-induced blistering has been found most frequently in vessels handling sour (hydrogen-sulfide-containing) light hydrocarbons and in alkylation units where hydrofluoric acid is used as a catalyst. Storage vessels with sour gasoline and propane are highly prone to blistering, but sour crude...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate in the electrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do not participate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... exhaust fumes containing toluene, sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus, moisture, and other impurities. (a) Unetched, picture width ∼6 mm. (b) Enlarged view of the cracks; 10% oxalic acid electrolytic etch, picture width ∼1.5 mm. Courtesy of Mohan Chaudhari, Columbus Metallurgical Services Preconditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...,” identifies five types of SCC (chloride, caustic, polythionic acid, wet H 2 S-SCC, and ammonia) experienced by crude units in petroleum refineries ( Fig. 2 , Ref 6 ). In industrial and residential plumbing systems, SCC can occur in brass plumbing components that are used in a hard temper condition...