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hot working

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Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 25 Runner block made from a proprietary hot work tool steel that was used to die cast aluminum transmission case covers. Macrograph shows the worn out surface of the die. 0.25×. Close-up views of areas 1 and 2 are shown in Fig. 26 . More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 48 Runner block made from a proprietary hot-work tool steel that was used to die cast aluminum transmission case covers. Macrograph shows the worn out surface of the die. 0.25×. Close-up views of areas 1 and 2 are shown in Fig. 49 . More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 48 Runner block made from a proprietary hot work tool steel that was used to die cast aluminum transmission case covers. Macrograph shows the worn-out surface of the die. Original magnification: 0.25×. Close-up views of areas 1 and 2 are shown in Fig. 49 . More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... did, however, contain substantial amounts of oxide, which evidently resulted from the hot-working operation. This evidence supports the conclusion that the appearance of this discontinuity, with the long axis parallel to the working direction and radial orientation with regard to depth, strongly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... of copper, nickel, and cobalt. A steel of similar composition, X38Cr-MoV5 1 (W-No. 2343) was used for hot working tools. The sliver originated from a damaged press tool. Hot working Impurities Studs Aluminum Metalworking-related failures In a continuously cast aluminum press stud two small...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and macroscopic inspection, metallographic and chemical analysis, SEM imaging, optical profilometry, mechanical property testing, and EDX analysis. The die was made of chromium hot-work tool steel and the forgings were made of CuZn39Pb3 heated to an initial working temperature 700 deg C. The entire surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0047158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
.... Analysis supported the conclusion that the failures to be the result of seams in the steel that were not joined during hot working. Recommendations included that closer inspection of the product take place at all stages of manufacturing. Inspection at the mill will minimize discrepancies at the source...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... network, which created a brittle path for fracture to occur longitudinally. As the cellular carbide network must be dispersed and refined during hot working of the original bar of material, the hobs were not salvageable. Minor factors contributing to the hob failures were premature wear resulting from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that superficial working of the metal, probably insufficient hot working, produced a microstructure in which the carbide particles were not broken up and evenly distributed. As a result, the grains were totally surrounded with brittle carbide particles. This facilitated the formation of a crack at a fillet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are very important to nearly all manufacturing processes. It is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used in cold working and hot working applications. The processes involved in the analysis of tool...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...) than specified. It was disclosed by metallographic examination that the microstructure was predominantly equiaxed ferrite and pearlite which indicated that the material was in either the hot-worked or normalized condition. An improvement of fatigue strength of the shaft by the development of a quenched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... propagation were needed be controlled. It was concluded that improved steel processing procedures, chiefly hot-working temperature and deformation control, were also required to optimize microstructure and properties. Chemical composition Ductile brittle transition Gas pipelines Steel making API 5L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (625 to 750 deg F). Because the spring was enclosed and mounted above the valve, its temperature was probably slightly lower. The 195 mm (7 in.) OD x 305 mm (12 in.) long spring was made from a 35 mm (1 in.) diam rod of H21 hot-work tool steel. It had been in service for about four years and had been...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Type 430 stainless steel hot rolled to various percentages of reduction showing development of a banded structure consisting of alternate layers of ferrite (light) and martensite (dark) as the amount of hot work is increased. (a) 63% reduction. (b) 81% reduction. (c) 94% reduction. 55 More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 4 Type 430 stainless steel hot rolled to various percentages of reduction showing development of a banded structure consisting of alternate layers of ferrite (light) and martensite (dark) as the amount of hot work is increased. (a) 63% reduction. (b) 81% reduction. (c) 94% reduction More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 7 Good edge retention obtained in a cast epoxy mount containing soft ceramic shot filler (round particles in the epoxy at the top.) The specimen is annealed H13 hot work die steel etched with picral. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 15 Good edge retention obtained in a cast epoxy mount containing soft ceramic shot filler. (Note the round particles in the epoxy at the top.) The specimen is annealed H13 hot work die steel, and it was etched with picral. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... operations are also classified as either primary metalworking (where mill forms such as bar, plate, tube, sheet, and wire are worked from ingot or other cast forms) or secondary metalworking (where mill products are further formed into finished products by hot forging, cold forging, drawing, extrusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... discontinuities hot forming ingot casting metalworking defects nonferrous forging steel forging wrought metal products Introduction to Failures Related to Hot Forming Processes Wrought forms are produced by a wide variety of metalworking operations that can be roughly divided into bulk-working...