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hot salt corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., preheating; F, firing; AF, after firing; C, cooling. Fig. 2 Side and top views of severely corroded (heavily salted) grate bar (after approximately 9 months in service), showing corrosion products on surface. Fig. 6 Results of laboratory hot corrosion (cyclic) tests on HH steel coupons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. Metals and alloys are known to experience accelerated oxidation when their surfaces are covered with a thin film of fused salt in an oxidizing gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. This is known as high temperature or “hotcorrosion where a porous non-protective oxide scale is formed at the surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: ferrite and pearlite (×500). Onset of the transformation of pearlite Fig. 6 Sample 2 (fracture area): inner wall on the side of exposure to the hot gas flux starting from fracture. Severe pitting corrosion. General overview Fig. 7 Sample 2 (fracture area): fractured inner wall, exposed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in a bucket tip shroud and its principal stresses Discussion The differing microstructure of the airfoil results in changes in mechanical properties. Type 2 hot corrosion was present at these third-stage buckets, which operate at approximately 650 °C (1200 °F). Other contributing factors were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... In gas corrosion, the driving force is the pressure gradient. Gas penetration is less rapid, in terms of mass, than that of wetting liquids; reactions do not necessarily commence at the hot face. However, the depth of penetration of gases can be much greater than that of liquids. Moving down...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... support plates, gave rise of hot spots and areas of high heat flux, resulting in steam blanketing. The morphology of the corrosion damage confirmed that the boiler tubes failed as a result of steam blanketing that concentrated the phosphate salts resulting in alkaline attack. The powdery non-adherent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is not in service. The length of down-time of the CCW is unknown. Continuous air monitor (CAM) failed. The CAM ensures that any airborne contamination is detected. If the CAM is out of service, it is possible for radionuclides and/or corrosive salts to escape through the purge ventilation undetected. Purge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the borderline passivity of type 316L in hot dilute sulfuric acid (about 0.1%). Inaccuracy of the testing was attributed to the presence of cupric ions in the lead-lined vessel fluids, which had been released by corrosion of the copper coils. Careful control of both temperature and pH was recommended to reduce...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of nickel-coated bars occurred even when the bar was removed from the concrete shortly after the conclusion of testing. This phenomenon is in contrast to the behaviour of zinc-dipped bars, which exhibited only a mild development of zinc salts on the whole bar surface, while no corrosion of the steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract This article presents a failure analysis of 37.5 mW gas turbine third stage buckets made of Udimet 500 superalloy. The buckets experienced repetitive integral tip shroud fractures assisted by a low temperature (type II) hot corrosion. A detailed analysis was carried out on elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... on the downstream sides of the openings in the shell. In all the damaged areas the mechanism of failure involved surface pitting and subsequent SCC. This failure showed the problems that can develop where there are long lines in which condensation may occur and return periodically to a superheater or other hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... 9 and 10 . In general, these coating layers can improve the hot corrosion behavior of blades, extending their lifetime by a factor of four. The testing techniques used confirmed the lack of any coating layers. Coating systems that during diffusion produce intermetallic compounds (mainly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... product on inner surface of piping (see Table 2 for compositions of layers) Investigation Inspection of the piping between the heat exchanger in the salt bath and the molecular-sieve bed revealed a hole in the tee fitting ( Fig. 3 a and b) and a corrosion product (scale) on the inner surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... evidence which argues against this view is that microscopical examination of samples of tubes affected by on-load corrosion shows no indications of structural changes attributable to overheating. ( c ) Film Boiling It is presumed that local hot spots form, leading to concentration of boiler salts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... started to note a significant increase in leaking pipes throughout the property. The leaks were primarily observed in the copper pipes used for domestic hot and cold water lines. The boiler plant contained some galvanized pipes, and corrosion product accumulations were being observed at the threaded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... forms) Sodium chloride Stress relieving 18-8 Stress-corrosion cracking Following disruption of the basket of a hydro-extractor used for the separation of crystals of salt (sodium chloride) from glycerine, samples of the broken parts were submitted to the Company with a view to ascertaining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Table 2 for compositions of layers) Investigation Inspection of the piping between the heat exchanger in the salt bath and the molecular-sieve bed revealed a hole in the tee fitting ( Fig. 3a, b ) and a corrosion product (scale) on the inner surface of the pitting. This scale occurred in four...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Cartridge-pneumatic starter systems are used on military aircraft. In the cartridge mode used for alert starts, the starter turbine is driven by hot gases produced through the controlled burning of a solid propellant cartridge within a closed chamber (the breech chamber/cartridge...