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hot salt attack

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with a thin film of fused salt in an oxidizing gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. This is known as high temperature or “hot” corrosion where a porous non-protective oxide scale is formed at the surfaces with sulfides in the substrate, and the mechanism of attack does not involve aqueous electrolytes [ 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... electron microscopy. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses also were conducted. These examinations focused on whether the enhanced attack was a form of hot corrosion and, if so, the source of the responsible salt(s). Microstructural Analysis As-received grate bars that had spent 9 months...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... flux through the studs leading to local boiling and concentration of boiler salts, in particular NaOH. Alkaline attack then occurred. The source of the NaOH causing alkaline attack is the trisodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ), used as one of the boiler water chemicals. It has been reported ( Ref 1 , 5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by malfunctions in the cooling water system. These events and their possible impacts are summarized in Table 1 . The various failures in the purge ventilation system have an effect on the transport of corrosive salts through the system into the vent pipe, possibly contributing to its degradation. Summary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with SO 2 attack. Volatile chlorides also play a role. When dusts are carried out in hot gases, they may lead to deposition or abrasion. Deposition leads to scaling or caking with either beneficial or life-shortening consequences. Dusts entrained in gases that condense within refractories or ceramics...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to high temperatures. The combined effect of pitting, incrustations, and phase transformations caused the pipe to rupture. boiler tube fracture corrosion pits salt incrustation carbon steel thermal fatigue striations dimples microstructural analysis plastic strain A192 (carbon steel) UNS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the hot surfaces of the shell. The deposits contained chlorides from the city water used in the exchanger. Acting in combination with the normal fabricating stresses inherent in the vessel, chloride salts caused the type 316 stainless steel shell at the vapor space to fail because of the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... attributable to overheating. ( c ) Film Boiling It is presumed that local hot spots form, leading to concentration of boiler salts, particularly sodium hydroxide, with a corresponding acceleration of the rate of attack on the under-lying metal, the protective film which initially forms being dissolved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of general hot corrosion attack was also more extensive. The thickness of each bucket shroud was measured at specific locations around the perimeter. It was determined that the maximum thickness reduction of the blade tip shroud due to corrosion/erosion was 0.64 to 0.91 mm. The fractured bucket tip...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... NO8020) specimens in a lead-lined tank equipped with copper coils that had served in this function prior to construction of the new tanks. Both materials exhibited virtually no corrosion and no preferential weld attack. Type 316L was selected for the project. The subsequent corrosion was the result...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... driving forces to cause rapid attack) Biological corrosion (which is a microbial-assisted form of attack that can manifest itself as uniform corrosion by forming weak or cathodic oxides, or it can also produce a localized form of attack) Molten salt corrosion and liquid-metal corrosion (which have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rapid attack) Biological corrosion (which is a microbial-assisted form of attack that can manifest itself as uniform corrosion by forming weak or cathodic oxides, or it can also produce a localized form of attack) Molten salt corrosion and liquid metal corrosion (which have become more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Vol 10 , Metals Handbook , 8th ed. , American Society for Metals , 1975 , p 235 13. Timmins P.F. , Chap. 3 , Solutions to Hydrogen Attack in Steels , ASM International , 1997 14. Louthan M.R. , Hydrogen Embrittlement of Metals: A Primer for the Failure Analyst , J...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... considered to be valid. Three additional characteristics have been added: Cathodic protection has been successful, in some cases, in preventing crack initiation and in stopping propagation of cracking that has already progressed, to a limited extent. Addition of soluble salts containing certain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the addition of suitable inhibitors to the pickling solution eliminates or minimizes attack on the metal and the consequent generation of nascent hydrogen. Salt baths operated at approximately 210 °C (410 °F) can be used for descaling titanium alloys, superalloys, and refractory metals to avoid the possibility...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... °F). Failure occurred after approximately 4 years of service. The micrograph shown in Fig. 1 , which illustrates a specimen from one of the low-carbon steel nipples, reveals fissuring at the grain boundaries. This phenomenon is characteristic of hydrogen attack when low-carbon steel is exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Following disruption of the austenitic stainless steel basket of a hydro-extractor used for the separation of crystals of salt (sodium chloride) from glycerin, samples of the broken parts were analyzed. Examination revealed that the fish-plates joining the reinforcing hoops...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The fundamentals of corrosion are described in more detail in Ref 2 . However, as a brief introduction, the electrochemical nature of corrosion can be illustrated by the attack on zinc by hydrochloric acid (HCl). When zinc is placed in dilute hydrochloric acid, a vigorous reaction occurs in which hydrogen gas...