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hot plane-strain compression test

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in tensile testing of the order of 10 −3 to 10 −2 per minute do not typically cause deformation twinning at room temperature, but a hammer blow will cause twinning.) When deformation twinning does occur during plastic straining, it is usually activated after prior deformation by slip (but see subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a hcp structure, just as there are differences in the stress necessary to cause cleavage. Deformation twinning does occur in materials having a bcc lattice, with twinning more likely at low temperature and elevated strain rates. (Strain rates commonly encountered in tensile testing of the order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... based on maximum strain). Additionally, some criteria take into account polar behavior (unequal tensile and compressive failure stresses), anisotropic behavior, and nonconstancy of volume during deformation. The historically early models (Rankine, Tresca, von Mises, and octahedral shear) were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the component, placing the hot spot at the surface under compressive stress is beneficial. This can be achieved by surface treatments such as nitriding, carburizing (case hardening), shot peening, needling, surface rolling, and mechanical overstressing. When these treatments are properly applied, the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” in this Volume). This section describes the underlying fundamentals and the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. Both plane stress and plane strain are explored, and instances in which seemingly appropriate two-dimensional (2D) analyses lead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...) tensile strength and a 241-MPa (35-ksi) yield strength. The steel mill tests showed a Charpy V-notch energy absorption of 30 J (22 ft · lb) at 20 °C (68 °F). The plates had been hot formed into segments during construction of the reactor. The inside of the vessel was refractory lined to keep its...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and plastic strain. If any one of these three is not present, fatigue cracks will not initiate and propagate. The cyclic stress and strain starts the crack; the tensile stress produces crack growth (propagation). Although compressive stress will not cause fatigue cracks to propagate, compression loads may do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... prestrained in torsion to a shear strain of 4.3×. Source (b): Ref 3 In off-axis or bending fractures, the fracture plane is often generally perpendicular with the direction of maximum principal stress, providing information about the type and direction of loading. As the fracture progresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modes during tensile loading. Mode I is plane-strain fracture, where void growth and fibrous tearing occur along a crack plane that is essentially normal to the axis of the tensile load. The fracture appearance typically has a dull and fibrous appearance, as in the classic “cup and-cone” feature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the decrease in K II . The crack eventually turns to the radial-axial plane of the tube. In the rolled joint, the residual stress state is more complex. The hoop stress due to rolling is compressive, varying from about 350 MPa on the inside surface to about 500 MPa on the outside surface of the tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and not macroscale visible, while the fracture process is still microvoid coalescence. This is the case when the ductile fracture mechanism of microvoid coalescence is constrained to a plane-strain strain fracture mode (referred to as plane-strain microvoid coalescence) or occurs preferentially in the limited region...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... compressive yielding of the material under the pin would occur until the contact area has increased sufficiently or the material had strain-hardened enough for a condition of stability to have been reached. Another significant feature resulting from the test was that fracture did not occur through the eye...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... operations are also classified as either primary metalworking (where mill forms such as bar, plate, tube, sheet, and wire are worked from ingot or other cast forms) or secondary metalworking (where mill products are further formed into finished products by hot forging, cold forging, drawing, extrusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the microvoids, which then grow and coalesce as deformation progresses further. Ductile fracture by void growth and coalescence can occur by two modes during tensile loading. Mode I is plane-strain fracture, where void growth and fibrous tearing occur along a crack plane that is essentially normal to the axis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... As received 76 11 A As received 240 35 A Stress-received at 538 °C (1000 °F) for 1 h 19 2.7 A Shot-cleaned 510 74 (a) X-ray diffraction. Precision, ±55 MPa (8 ksi) In further investigations of the effect of compressive residual stresses, stress-corrosion tests were conducted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... applications by inducing a compressive residual stress on the surface. Failures of Shape Memory Alloy Springs Shape memory or nitinol (NiTi) alloys have typical mechanical elastic properties and super-elastic properties that allow unique stress-strain relationships. Springlike components manufactured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the absolute temperature. Figure 2 provides insight into the effect of temperature on inelastic deformation accumulation. The images are of the external surface of nickel-base superalloy test specimens. Both specimens were monotonically tested to an identical inelastic strain. One specimen was tested at room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (discussed herein). Part 14 of the 2016 edition of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, Fitness-for-Service (API 579) ( Ref 16 ) is generally consistent with ASME Section VIII, Division 2, but it also includes a modern Brown-Miller strain-life fatigue approach that can be coupled with a critical plane method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... case, there was no evidence of crack opening displacement (CTOD) at the case/core transition, and the dimensions were adequate to support plane strain behavior. The results of the calculations are shown in Table 2 . Stress intensities for point origins were calculated using an analysis for a semi...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A pressure vessel failed causing an external fire on a nine-story coke gasifier in a refinery power plant. An investigation revealed that the failure began as cracking in the gasifier internals, which led to bulging and stress rupture of the vessel shell, and the escape of hot syngas...