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hot ductility-related defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... some of the common defects in each category. The following sections reference the terminology introduced in Table 1 . Failures Related to Gray Iron Castings The cast iron family consists of several different alloys, including gray iron, ductile iron, malleable iron, white iron, compacted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... found supports the conclusion that the shaft failed as the result of stress in the sharp fillets and rough surfaces at the root of the splines. Cold weather failure occurred sooner than in hot weather because ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of the 1040 steel shaft was too high. Recommendations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... bursts or chevron cracks, cracks on free surfaces, cracks on die-contacted surfaces Metal-flow-related problems: for example, end grain and poor surface performance; inhomogeneous grain size; shear bands and locally weakened structures; cold shuts, folds, and laps; flow-through defects Control...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... In the absence of records related to the manufacturing history of the supplied raw material, hydrogen absorption was suspected to have occurred during improper pickling of the hot-rolled bars. Careful control of the acid pickling operation within specified process parameters was recommended. Measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... discontinuities hot forming ingot casting metalworking defects nonferrous forging steel forging wrought metal products Introduction to Failures Related to Hot Forming Processes Wrought forms are produced by a wide variety of metalworking operations that can be roughly divided into bulk-working...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It presents the international classification of common casting defects in a tabular form. austenitic steels cast aluminum alloys cast iron casting casting defects casting design castings centrifugal casting corrosion-resistant castings discontinuities ductile iron gravity die casting gray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Selected References Selected References • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 156 – 191 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509 • Becker W.T. and McGarry D. , Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surfaces revealed a brittle intercrystalline mode of fracture with typical manifestations of clear grain facets. Branched and discrete stepwise microcracks were also found along with unusually high levels of residual hydrogen. Mechanical tests revealed a marked loss of tensile ductility in the defective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of failure was overlap, a kind of forging defect. Figure 8 depicts a diagram of the formation of an overlap defect (indicated by a blue dashed line). The hot forging was carried out at high temperature (750–800 °C). Consequently, oxides probably occurred on the forging surface. Once overlap occurred...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... not sacrifice weldment reliability or if it is a defect (which, by definition here, is a condition that must be removed or corrected). A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect until it either affects the fitness-for-service of a weld or is defined as such by an acceptance/rejection criteria related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with the thermoplastic or metal. Additional examples of material defects related to nonconformity to ingredient specifications are shown in Fig. 6 and 7 . The rubber article shown in Fig. 6 and 7 is composed of two layers of rubber with a layer of fabric reinforcement in the center. The physical testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A forged 4130 steel cylindrical permanent mold, used for centrifugal casting of gray- and ductile-iron pipe, was examined after pulling of the pipe became increasingly difficult. In operation, the mold rotated at a predetermined speed in a centrifugal casting machine while the molten...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will be presented in the section “Causes of Service Failures” in this article because this is the leading cause of service failures. Material Defects Material defects may be laminations, laps, seams, holes, hot tears, and so on. A few failures have resulted from foreign material being rolled into the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Pinhole defects were found in a main combustion chamber made from NARloy-Z after an unexpectedly short time in service. Analysis indicated that the throat section of the liner had been exposed to very severe environmental conditions of high temperature and high oxygen content, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a highly deformed microstructure. Significant increases in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and hardness, and a corresponding reduction in ductility, accompany the flow forming process. Conventionally, tubes are produced by hot extrusion followed by drawing or pilgering. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article describes some of the welding discontinuities and flaws characterized by nondestructive examinations. It focuses on nondestructive inspection methods used in the welding industry. The sources of weld discontinuities and defects as they relate to service failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... In order to determine whether it was possible that defects present in the blanks before the forging operation (i.e. developed during hot rolling of the bar stock) could be responsible for the cracking observed in the defective kingpins, some starting blanks containing saw cuts were forged at the forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...-Related Failures , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 868 – 880 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555 • Becker W.T. and McGarry D. , Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Little distortion evident • Intergranular or transgranular • May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating...