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hot billet handling systems

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 50 solid dies has been collected from local hot extrusion industry. All the dies were scrapped due to fracture failure. These dies had less than 1 mm fillet (lead) radius with average bearing land of 8 mm and failed under extrusion speed resulting in billet average strain rate of about 1 s –1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the Ingot Many flaws in wrought products can be traced back to the pouring and solidification of hot metal in molds during production of ingot. Except for forged powder metal components, the starting material in bulk working is a slab, ingot, billet, and so forth produced by casting into stationary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-transport system, indicating leakage from the pressure tube. The reactor was shut-down but hot (about 250°C) at the time of the leakage and, following the station's operating procedures, the reactor was immediately cooled and depressurized. This procedure demonstrated leak-before-break as a defence against...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... around edges Hot cracking C 200: Discontinuities caused by internal tension and restraints to contraction (cracks and tears) C 210: Cold cracking or tearing C 211 (a) Discontinuities with squared edges in areas susceptible to tensile stresses during cooling; surface not oxidized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of circumstances. Intermittent operation can also affect the life of pressure vessels. Long periods of inactivity greatly enhance the probability of internal or external corrosion. During long shutdown periods, a common effective practice is to pressurize the system with nitrogen, to avoid corrosion. Wet lay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to be handled like clean samples. Metallographic Preparation The development of techniques used in the preparation of metallographic specimens has been previously discussed in detail. 6 Due to the many corrosion sites and the size of the Mk-31A billet, a preliminary sectioning was performed. The billet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and residential plumbing systems, SCC can occur in brass plumbing components that are used in a hard temper condition or that have residual stresses from final finishing, such as rolled threads. Stainless steel clamps used in residential cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems exhibit SCC when moisture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... intensified as a result of cold forming. Example 2: Stress-Corrosion Failure of a Strap-Type Clamp Made of 19-9 DL Heat- Resisting Alloy The clamp shown in Fig. 8(a) was used for securing the hot air ducting system on fighter aircraft. The strap was 0.8 mm (0.032 in.) thick, and the V-section was 1.3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... marks or nicks, and quench cracks resulting from heat treating operations. Frequently, stress concentrators are introduced during hot or cold forming of shafts; these include surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, pits and forging laps, and internal imperfections, such as bursts. Internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Frequently, stress concentrators are introduced during hot or cold forming of shafts; these include surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, pits and forging laps, and internal imperfections, such as bursts. Internal stress concentrators can also be introduced during solidification of ingots from which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and glass transition temperature. It also provides information on polyimide and bismaleimide resin systems. Representative examples of different types of engineering thermoplastics are discussed primarily in terms of structure and thermal properties. chemical composition elastomeric materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... For general conditions, the ratios for sheaves should be considered, but for some applications, departures are made from these values. Where bending is the primary factor affecting the service life of the rope, the drum may be slightly smaller in diameter than the sheaves in the system, because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or no consequence. More rigorous applications are likely to require springs with defect-free surfaces. Such surfaces can be obtained by conditioning of billets or even by grinding of the wire or strip stock from which the springs are formed. These practices, however, significantly increase cost and decrease...