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homogeneous polymers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... material. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 4 Creep of polymethyl methacrylate under a torsional stress at 30 °C (85 °F). Source: Ref 12 Abstract This article describes the general aspects of creep, stress relaxation, and yielding for homogeneous polymers. It then presents creep failure mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to thermomechanical testing; 5 °C/min (9 °F/min) in flexure. HDPE, high-density polyethylene; LDPE, low-density polyethylene; PC, polycarbonate; PVC, polyvinyl chloride. Abstract This article addresses some established protocols for characterizing thermoplastics and whether they are homogeneous resins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and the ductility increases when material is close to T g . Finally, at even greater temperatures, homogeneous deformation is observed with a very large extension at fracture. In an amorphous polymer above the T g , the rubber-like behavior occurs at very low stress levels. Viscous flow (or viscoelastic behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... coincidentally occurs at about the same strain as yielding in a ductile polymer. Except for a slight decrease in slope immediately before fracture, the deformation may be considered linearly elastic. Hooke’s law for a homogeneous, isotropic material can be applied for most practical engineering analyses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) and Group 2 resistors. The group 2 resistor had been exposed to the heat of soldering for 90 s. Note the dark appearance of the top polymer coating. This is due to the pyrolysis, or breakdown, of the epoxy coating. 19.25× Fig. 3 Delaminated group 8 resistor that exhibited a low pushoff strength...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... immediately before fracture, the deformation may be considered linearly elastic. Hooke's law for a homogeneous, isotropic material can be applied for most practical engineering analyses of stress and strain in a brittle plastic part. When a ductile polymer fractures in a brittle manner, the stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Softening temperature Character of polymer at 25 °C (77 °F) °C °F 1 30 –169 (a) –272 (a) Gas 6 170 –12 (a) 10 (a) Liquid 35 1,000 37 99 Grease 140 4,000 93 199 Wax 250 7,000 98 208 Hard wax 430 12,000 104 219 Plastic 750 21,000 110 230 Plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... until a complete breakdown of the polymer occurs. Overheating can also consume or deplete important additives such as antioxidants, which can weaken the polymer. Conversely, a melt that is too cold will not allow the material to fuse properly or to create a homogenized mix. Crystalline materials have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnification are then described. Typical microscopic features observed on structural metals are presented subsequently, followed by a brief discussion on fatigue in polymers and polymer-matrix composites. engineering components fatigue fracture fractography metals polymer-matrix composites polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Semicrystalline Thermoplastics The most versatile use of polymers in tribological application has been for the semicrystalline group of polymers. Semicrystalline thermoplastics include PTFE, polyethylene (PE), UHMWPE, and nylon. These polymers, in homogeneous or heterogeneous forms, have found applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The increase of frequency “freezes” the chain movements and a stiffer behavior was observed. Reprinted under license CC BY-SA 4.0 from Ref 31 Fig. 12 Viscoelastic regions of polymers Fig. 11 Generalized modulus for amorphous and crystalline polymers Abstract This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the semicrystalline group of polymers. Semicrystalline thermoplastics include PTFE, polyethylene (PE), UHMWPE, and nylon. These polymers, in homogeneous or heterogeneous forms, have found applications in gears, bearings, automobile piston seals, knee/hip joint replacements, and similar uses. Semicrystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...Water absorption values for selected polymers Table 1 Water absorption values for selected polymers Polymer 24 hours, % Equilibrium, % Cellulose Acetate 1.7 7.0 High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) 0.01 0.5 Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) 0.01 0.1 Polyamide (PA 6) 3.0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ‖ >, MPa (ksi) 25.7 (3.7) 15.2 (2.2) <σ ⊥ >, MPa (ksi) −5.7 (−0.8) −4.8 (−0.7) V f , volume fraction. Source: Ref 10 Properties of polymers Table 5 Properties of polymers Material Linear coefficient of thermal expansion, 10 −6 /K Tensile modulus Tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... trends in ultrasonic inspection is presented at the end of the article. References References 1. Brunner A.J. , Hack E. , and Neuenschwander J. , Nondestructive Testing , in Characterization and Analysis of Polymers , Seidel A. , Ed., J. Wiley & Sons , 2008 , p...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are presented subsequently, followed by a brief discussion of fatigue in nonmetals. The article reviews the various macroscopic and microscopic features to characterize the history and growth rate of fatigue in metals. It concludes with a description of fatigue of polymers and composites. composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...General comparison of properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers Table 1 General comparison of properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers Property (approximate values) Metals Ceramics Polymers Density, g/cm 3 2–22 (average ~8) 2–19 (average ~4) 1–2 Melting points Low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in the webline handling system Determine the critical draw ratio for the polymer: ○ Weakly non-Newtonian polymers: 20:1 ○ Strongly non-Newtonian polymers: 3:1 Reduce draw ratio Cool product faster so that it solidifies earlier Screw beat Improperly designed feed throat/screw Axial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 1 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Properties measured Use in polymer failure analysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Molecular bond structure Material...