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homogeneous nucleation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... through increased nucleation sites. It was recommended that the hob manufacturer specify a minimum amount of required reduction for the original bar of tool steel material, to provide for sufficient homogenization of the carbides in the resultant hob, and lower sulfur content. Selected References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... regions examined. It was concluded that preferential nucleations of graphite nodules in a series of bands weakened the steel locally, producing preferred fracture paths. Formation of these graphite bands probably expedited the creep failure of the tube. Future failures may be avoided by using low-alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... This is usually expected in reformer furnaces, because the predominant enviromnent is hot air and combustion gases outside the line and steam and hydrocarbon gases inside the line. The cracks that caused the perforation in the curved specimens were apparently nucleated by the interconnection ( Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... species on the tubes in Stage 3. The complete failure of the tube occurred due to diffusion of these elements into the base metal and precipitation of potassium and chlorine compounds along the grain boundaries, with subsequent dislodging of grains. The nonmetallic inclusions acted as nucleating sites...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... layer. The white layer, containing the contact surface, is usually homogeneous and finely structured. Fig. 2 Schematic representation of subsurface zones found beneath surfaces subjected to repetitive impact loading. Source: Ref 4 The characteristics of the subsurface regions vary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article focuses on characterizing the fracture-surface appearance at the microscale and contains some discussion on both crack nucleation and propagation mechanisms that cause the fracture appearance. It begins with a discussion on microscale models and mechanisms for deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concepts. bending brittle fracture compression failure deformation ductile crack nucleation ductile fracture ductility fractography manufacturing imperfections metals microvoid coalescence notched specimen plastic flow root cause failure analysis single-crystal cleavage models specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to) grain boundaries from conditions such as creep cavitation or void nucleation at precipitates in the grain boundaries. The term IG brittle fracture is used when the grain surface does not have dimples indicative of microvoid coalescence. In some cases, the term decohesive rupture has been used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions such as creep cavitation or void nucleation at precipitates in the grain boundaries. The term IG brittle fracture is used when the grain surface does not have dimples indicative of microvoid coalescence. In some cases, the term decohesive rupture has been used for IG fracture with dimples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... layer. The white layer, containing the contact surface, is usually homogeneous and finely structured. Fig. 2 Schematic representation of subsurface zones found beneath surfaces subjected to repetitive impact loading. Source: Ref 7 The characteristics of the subsurface regions vary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Tan Y.X. , Micromechanisms of fatigue crack nucleation and short crack growth in a low carbon steel under low cycle impact fatigue loading . Int. J. Fatigue 21 , 823 – 830 ( 1999 ) 10.1016/S0142-1123(99)00031-6 8. Zhong Q.P. , Zhao Z.H. , Fractography ( Higher Education...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... initiated (spalling and case crushing), and surface initiated (pitting and micropitting). According to the references [ 1 , 2 ], the surface-initiated cracks will nucleate preferentially due to stress concentration. When the surface stress exceeds the yield limit of material, it may induce plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... homogeneous product include: The fast shrinkage as the molten metals cools (roughly 5% in volume for steel) The gaseous products that are trapped by the solidifying metal as they try to escape from the liquid and semisolid metal Small crevices in the mold walls, which cause the metal to tear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... on the surface. Porosity is developed in cast ingots when they solidify and is of two types: pipe and blowholes. Factors that work against obtaining a perfect homogeneous cast ingot include: Fast shrinkage as the molten metal cools (roughly 5% in volume for steel) Gaseous products that are trapped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... are discussed along with potential methods to eliminate these microstructural in homogeneities. Shear bands Threaded fasteners Ti-6Al-4V UNS R56406 Ductile fracture Threaded Ti-6Al-4V fasteners are used extensively by the aerospace industry for joining structural components. One popular type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... nuclei is proportional to the available grain boundary area. Larger grained materials shift the nose of the Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) curve to the right, inhibiting pearlite nucleation and promoting martensite formation. Much of the hardenability research has been performed on a moderately...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... precipitate is formed during creep, a simple heat treatment or cold work followed by annealing prior to testing should give a homogeneous distribution of precipitates. Microstructural changes due to the combined influence of temperature and stress can be difficult to evaluate. Therefore, simulation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is well preserved and if the analyst is knowledgeable, the fracture appearance reveals details of the loading events that culminated in fracture. An understanding of how cracks nucleate and grow microscopically to cause bulk (macroscale) fracture is an essential part of fractography. The ability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... material. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 4 Creep of polymethyl methacrylate under a torsional stress at 30 °C (85 °F). Source: Ref 12 Abstract This article describes the general aspects of creep, stress relaxation, and yielding for homogeneous polymers. It then presents creep failure mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to strengthen the material or minimize the overall effect. For example, if a heterogeneous precipitate is formed during creep, a simple heat treatment or cold work followed by annealing prior to testing should yield a homogeneous distribution of precipitates. Microstructural changes due to the combined...