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homogeneity

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... into the folds during forging. This evidence supported the conclusion that even through there was some indication of chemical segregation, the folds made during forging initiated the main crack. Furthermore, even if the steel had been more homogeneous, hardening cracks would probably have been promoted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for sufficient homogenization of the carbides in the resultant hob, and lower sulfur content. Carbides Coatings Hobbing cutters Microstructural effects Sulfur Wear M2 UNS T11302 Brittle fracture Background A gear manufacturer reported recurring premature failures of titanium nitrided M2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be homogenous and had no banded structure. However, x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of up to 6% retained austenite which likely caused the tube to buckle during the 910 °C heat treating procedure. tube buckling retained austenite bainitic steel distortion x-ray diffraction analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... present to the gas a surface area considerably greater than that of a homogeneous material. Chlorine gas Combustion Compressors Corrosion environments Ignition Lubrication Piston rods Fe-0.35C (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion It is known that under suitable conditions iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... are discussed along with potential methods to eliminate these microstructural in homogeneities. Shear bands Threaded fasteners Ti-6Al-4V UNS R56406 Ductile fracture Threaded Ti-6Al-4V fasteners are used extensively by the aerospace industry for joining structural components. One popular type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... included manufacturing the doubler collar so that it could be placed in intimate contact with the header duct, and a revised weld procedure was recommended to result in a smaller, controlled, homogeneous weld joint with less distortion. Heat exchanger tubes Inlet headers Stress concentration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... condition, homogeneity, etc.) be obtained either before initial use of a component, or before the use of a component can be safely resumed. In this paper, the use of standard metallurgical laboratory equipment, and the procedures required to conduct nondestructive on-site metallographic analyses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction analysis of fractured surface in sample No. 4 In high strain rate, deformations like explosive deformation, depending on amount of strain and rate of strain, materials can respond to deformation through two main mechanisms: uniform or homogenous deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...% Ag, and 27 to 32% Zr. Precipitates were also observed in the banded region, having a more homogeneous appearance ( Fig. 5 ) with a composition of 38 to 41% Cu, 14 to 16% Ag, and 35 to 38% Zr. The silver precipitates were also observed in the banded region, with a rodlike structure and preferred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... locations of fractures at rough-ground areas at the parting line; in view A-A, dashed lines denote a rough-ground area, arrow points to a liquid-penetrant indication of an incipient crack. (b) Fracture surface, with beach marks indicating fracture origin at rough-ground surface. (c) Normal, homogeneous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... being remelted. Because increased gear reliability in this type of application is necessary, further improvements in steelmaking were needed to reduce the levels ofharmful inclusions and improve homogeneity. A new specification for the gear blank material, which required vacuum induction melting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... homogeneous product include: The fast shrinkage as the molten metals cools (roughly 5% in volume for steel) The gaseous products that are trapped by the solidifying metal as they try to escape from the liquid and semisolid metal Small crevices in the mold walls, which cause the metal to tear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of 0.5 to 1.0 mm. On the suction side of the blade was a layer of small (50 µm) grains ( Fig. 6 ). Figure 7 shows the grain boundaries with carbide precipitates (M 23 C 6 or M 7 C 6 ) and a homogeneous precipitation of γ′ phase inside the grains. The carbides were of composite type (TiCr)C. Figure 8...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the cylinder portion and the wear marks in the middle region are relatively homogeneous. It is noted that the cylinder surface close to the root fillet was also worn intensely. The wide and deep circumferential wear marks are present on the external circle surface of the plate. The size of outer diameter (OD...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., in addition to the main crack visible in Fig. 1 , further branching transcrystalline cracks running from the outer surface of the pipe into the pipe wall. The micrograph in Fig. 2 of part of the polished specimen shows as well as cracks, the homogeneous copper matrix, a more darkly etched edge zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was significantly less than the load carrying capacity of the shaft. The corresponding length of the radial crack propagation steps in various orientations suggests that the main shaft also carried a homogeneous axial tensile stress without the inclined load before fracturing. Fig. 4 Macromorphology...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... ingots removed from the bottom of the melter: (a) homogeneous ingot, (b) ingot containing irregularly shaped nodules or drips Visual examination of the electrode assembly revealed that the molybdenum electrode suffered severe pitting attack and a significant loss of cross-section. The end...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... true if improper working and finishing temperature are used. In order to refine the grain structure and to homogenize the microstructure. a normalizing heat treating process is used on A441 rolled plate It is apparent that neither of these two desired responses occurred in the center of our banded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the location of the ratchet marks. The FEA showed that the highest tensile stress, which would be the expected crack initiation site in material of homogeneous strength, was near the ends of the semicircular cross section, not somewhere in the part interior. Fig. 1 Narrow-headed arrows show porosity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at surfaces. Tests made to elucidate mechanisms of initiation frequently have been performed using pure single phase relatively homogeneous metals (without the heterogeneities described above). Based on observations from these tests, some researchers further separate the initiation stage into ( Ref 3...