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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... yielding that occurs when the component is temporarily cycled above its yield strength. Fatigue striations are microscopic features on a fatigue fracture surface that may identify one propagation cycle of a fatigue crack. They may not necessarily be detectable and can only be seen under relatively high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... occurred and the resulting consequences. Examples of damage mechanisms include high-temperature creep, hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking, and sulfidation. A damage mechanism describes how damage came to be present. This definition of failure mechanism also should not be confused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...× The surfaces of some stress-corrosion cracks resemble those of brittle mechanical fractures, although they actually are the result of local corrosion in combination with tensile stress. In some metals cracking propagates intergranularly and in others, transgranularly. In certain metals, such as high-nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polymers, heterochain polymers, and polymers containing aromatic rings. The article also includes some general information on the classification and naming of polymers and plastics. The most important properties of polymers, namely, thermal, mechanical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with high priority for residual-stress measurements are the highest-tensile-stressed areas, that is, the areas that are most susceptible to localized yielding or cracking. At the boundaries where the stress gradient changes sign, shear stresses may be present; thus, triaxial stress measurements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Ref 13 ). The importance of the XRD method resides in its ability to measure residual and applied stress with high spatial resolution, speed, and excellent accuracy, and, in many cases, measurements can be performed nondestructively ( Ref 14 ). The measurement of residual stress via XRD is generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., culminating in part with the development of the engineering discipline of fracture mechanics ( Ref 4 ). Through these and other efforts, insights into the cause and prevention of failures continue to evolve. Further discussion can be found in the article “ Failures Related to Welding ,” in Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and techniques followed in failure investigation of boilers and related equipment are discussed. The article is framed with an objective to provide systematic information on various damage mechanisms leading to the failure of boiler tubes, headers, and drums, supplemented by representative case studies...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and information, people interviews, laboratory investigations, stress analysis, and fracture mechanics analysis. The article concludes with information on the categories of failure and failure prevention. failure analysis failure prevention fracture mechanics analysis manufacturing-installation defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... abatement can yield. Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion The articles in this Section are devoted to the identification and analysis of corrosion-related failures, the categorization of corrosion failures by form and mechanism, and the application of preventive measures. The mechanisms of corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of superposition and related equivalency behaviors of plastic materials will be covered in more depth in the article “ Creep, Stress Relaxation and Yielding Mechanisms ” in this Volume. Nonlinear Behavior Although a single Maxwell element might be used to describe the stress relaxation behavior of a plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms of microbially induced or influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials as an introduction to the recognition, management, and prevention of microbiological corrosion failures in piping, tanks, heat exchangers, and cooling towers. It discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to the availability of plastics, other materials such as wood, glass, textiles, mineral oil, and ceramics were used to provide mechanical support as well as shielding and insulation between electrically active components and to act as the ground in electrical products. As the electrical and electronics industry grew...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... tool applications. Source: Ref 18 Mechanical Properties Mechanical properties include: High hardness values, up to 75 to 90 HRC High hot hardness values, HRC( T ) ceramics High Young’s moduli, E ceramics , and thus low deformation, δ ij Thermal Properties Thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... deposits on the metal surface. Direct electron transfer bypasses the kinetically constrained cathodic reaction ( Fig. 1 ) and leads to high corrosion rates. A plausible EMIC corrosion mechanism for the corrosion scenario involving SRB and iron-sulfide-rich corrosion products described previously is shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... embrittlement, microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), and high-temperature corrosion are also addressed in this Section. While categorizing local corrosion by form, mechanism, or environment helps understand the corrosion, failures are often attributed to a combination of modes. The combination...