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high-yield mechanical pulping

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... occurred and the resulting consequences. Examples of damage mechanisms include high-temperature creep, hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking, and sulfidation. A damage mechanism describes how damage came to be present. This definition of failure mechanism also should not be confused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Correction Strain-Based Fatigue Methods Fracture-Mechanics-Based Crack Growth Approaches Design by Analysis and Stress Classification API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, Fitness-for-Service Procedures Ratcheting and the Bree Diagram Cycle-Counting Techniques High-Cycle Welded Fatigue Considerations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to a specific environment in the presence of a tensile stress ( Fig. 1 ). The SCC failures are insidious and potentially dangerous because the stresses at which SCC can occur are relatively low (often less than the yield strength or fatigue strength of a metal), and cracks initiate and propagate in conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... values of this parameter for maraging steels heat treated to various yield strengths and then exposed to aqueous environments are given subsequently in this article, along with a general description of the relationship of the rate of cracking to stress intensity for maraging steels and for other high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with high priority for residual-stress measurements are the highest-tensile-stressed areas, that is, the areas that are most susceptible to localized yielding or cracking. At the boundaries where the stress gradient changes sign, shear stresses may be present; thus, triaxial stress measurements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the personal computer), and equipment portability ( Ref 13 ). The importance of the XRD method resides in its ability to measure residual and applied stress with high spatial resolution, speed, and excellent accuracy, and, in many cases, measurements can be performed nondestructively ( Ref 14...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... commonly occurs due to concentration cells established under the biofilm, where oxygen levels are depleted and metabolite (e.g., organic acid) concentrations may be high. Slime-forming organisms are a recommended target of monitoring programs for cooling water systems ( Ref 37 ) as are iron- and manganese...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that corrosion abatement can yield. Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion The articles in this Section are devoted to the identification and analysis of corrosion-related failures, the categorization of corrosion failures by form and mechanism, and the application of preventive measures. The mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...× Fig. 21 Inner-surface view of a failed tube showing scattered shallow pits. Original magnification: 16× Fig. 22 Schematic showing the mechanism of oxygen pitting Fig. 16 Microstructural evolution during high-temperature creep damage. (a) Initial ferrite plus pearlite. (b) In situ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... structure to excessively high temperatures results in permanent deformation by creep and subsequent buckling. Fracture Cold-formed and galvanized carbon steel sheet sustains brittle fracture under normal service loads, due to strain-age embrittlement. Lap in forging, loaded cyclically in service, grows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in organizations, either in the services, or in manufacturing, operating, or administering products, processes, and systems ( Ref 10 ). The intent is to provide not only products and systems that garner high customer satisfaction, but also that increase productivity, reduce costs, and meet delivery requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coatings. The bond between the sprayed coating and substrate is generally mechanical. Surface preparation is critical to the performance of the coating. One application of thermal spray coatings is for the protection of steel components from high-temperature oxidation up to 1095 °C (2000 °F). High...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... wrap coating on a buried pipeline in wet, anaerobic, high-clay soil features soft, black corrosion products rich in iron sulfide, FeS, and iron carbonate, FeCO 3 , overlying severe pitting. Fig. 4 Overlapping pits associated with corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria under iron sulfide/iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with minimal demands for smooth running Bearings with slight rotary motion ≧1 ≧0.5 Normal operation with higher requirements for smooth running ≧2 ≧1 Operation with pronounced shock loads ≧3 ≧2 Bearing arrangement with high requirements for running accuracy and smooth running ≧4 ≧3 Source...