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high-strength low-alloy pipe steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., enters the metal, diffuses to the crack tip region, and causes propagation by hydrogen stress cracking. This mechanism is no doubt involved in the environmental embrittlement of high-hardness, high-strength carbon, alloy, and stainless steels. While each of these mechanisms explains some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of longitudinal seam double submerged arc welded (DSAW) pipe of API 5L grade X52 (minimum yield strength of 359 MPa, or 52 ksi), a carbon-manganese pipeline steel. Tensile overload results from exceeding the mechanical strength of the joint due to overstress. This occurs at low to moderate loading rates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and industries that have experienced SCC failures include (this list is not exhaustive): Aerospace: Aluminum alloys in structural aircraft components such as landing gear and wing components, stainless steel tubing used as part of the hydraulic or fuel systems, high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... occurrence in gas turbines, high-temperature exposure of carbon and low-alloy steels used for piping and pressure vessels to high-pressure hydrogen leads to a special form of degradation known as hydrogen attack. In contrast to hydrogen embrittlement, which degrades toughness at low temperatures and imposes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... intergranular crack propagation. 554×. Source: Ref 11 Spacecraft separation springs were cold coiled from 13 mm (0.5 in.) 9254 alloy steel high-strength rod ( Ref 12 ). The springs were electroplated with tin and subsequently given a hydrogen embrittlement relief heat treatment at 200 °C (400 °F). Dye...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is exposed to hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures. The piping system was completely surveyed to ensure that only the specified metal was used. Replacements were made when the wrong metal was found. Fig. 3 Specimen from a low-carbon steel nipple showing fissuring at grain boundaries (top...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of expansion and that the studs had a coefficient of expansion that matched only the components made of austenitic stainless steel. Studs made of conventional stainless steel have a low yield strength and high ductility, which leads to stud elongation because of the operating temperature and load...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... should reveal whether a stress concentrator might have contributed to failure. The metallographic specimens should disclose the existence of any improper microstructures, such as decarburized layers, carburized skin, alloy segregation, high-strength martensite in the HAZ, and inadequate weld penetration...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel is made in a furnace normally used to make high-alloy steels. The refractory lining of the furnace may impart sufficient residual chromium and other alloying elements to a heat of low-carbon steel that problems occur when components made from that heat are joined using standard welding procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... propagation. (c) SEM micrograph showing an area similar to (b) at higher magnification. (a, b) Original magnification: 554×. (c) Original magnification: 1953×. Source: Ref 11 Spacecraft separation springs were cold coiled from 13 mm (0.5 in.) 9254 alloy steel high-strength rod ( Ref 12 ). The springs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the design. This discontinuity stress exceeded the tensile strength of the carbon steel shell material. Although initial cracking probably occurred during hydrostatic testing, the vessel operated at such low pressure that it was in service for approximately 2 years, during which time a crack propagated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Specific types of hydrogen damage Table 1 Specific types of hydrogen damage Specific damage process/mechanism Most common in Comments Hydrogen embrittlement High-strength steels and heavily cold-worked low-carbon steels, ambient temperatures Needs sustained stress. Not relevant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Specific types of hydrogen damage Table 1 Specific types of hydrogen damage Specific damage process/mechanism Most common in Comments Hydrogen embrittlement High-strength steels and heavily cold-worked low-carbon steels, ambient temperatures Needs sustained stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Integrity of Gas Pipelines ,” ASME B31.8S-2014, ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31 Supplement to ASME B31.8, American Society of Mechanical Engineers , New York, NY , 2014 24. Fang B.Y. et al. , Review of SCC of Pipeline Steels in “Low” and “High” pH Solutions , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 38...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... occurs in materials with a high strain-hardening rate and relatively low cleavage strength, or when a geometric constraint (i.e., large hydrostatic stresses) functions as an initiator of cleavage fracture. It also occurs in materials that are embrittled within the grains rather than at the grain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... having low and high stress-rupture ductility, showing the increased safety margin provided by the alloy with high stress-rupture ductility. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 9 Power-law dependence of creep crack growth with K in less ductile materials. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 12 Logarithmic plot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... metallurgical analysis yield strength API 5L-X46 (high-strength low-alloy line pipe steel) Background Approach Results Discussion and Conclusions References References 1. Rosenfeld M.J. : A simple procedure for synthesizing Charpy impact energy transition curves from limited test...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... strength steel) are quite similar, distinguishing between the two may not be necessary anyway. For medium and high strength alloy steels, there is increasing agreement bordering on unanimity, that a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism is involved in the stress corrosion cracking of these alloys ( 7...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and bending stresses can occur in a tube produced by drawing, heat treating, and straightening operations. By varying the severity of these operations, it is possible to produce tubes with very low residual stresses or with very high residual stresses that are near the yield strength of the metal. In other...