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high-purity iron

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
..., transverse section, unetched. 500 × The steel itself was free of defects and was of high purity. The types and amounts of nonmetallic inclusions corresponded to the classes M < 01.1 and S ≈ 04.1 according to Steel-Iron-Test Standard 1570. The spring was heat treated ( Fig. 7 ) and its surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as compared to traditional ceramics). For the present purpose, technical ceramics are defined as fine-grain (as opposed to coarse) ceramics made of high-purity powders, oxides, and/or non oxides (same as for refractories), with very little batch-to-batch variability and as little as possible liquid-solid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... surface. Other deposits on the crevice surface and the crack surface near the crevice were rich in iron. The literature indicated that Inconel 600 is susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion in hot, high-purity water, but it is only likely at stresses above the yield stress of the material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the patel a flange region. Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification Mechanical Properties The high degree of bead-to-bead bonding observed metallographically confirmed that bead composition, sintering cycle times, and temperatures were sufficient and were not responsible for the low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... No cause for the crank fracture could be established from material testing. Probably the load was too high for the strength of the crank. Tensile strength could have been increased for the same material by tempering at lower temperature. Additionally, the resistance against high bend fatigue stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a low heat input, multiple-pass procedure. Conclusions The intergranular SCC of the 150 mm (6 in.) schedule 80S type 304 stainless steel pipe exposed to high-temperature, high-pressure, high-purity water in 7 years of heat exchanger service was believed to have been caused by: Stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... regions are also weakened by high temperature, whereby the predominate fracture path becomes intergranular (although transgranular fractures have been observed in high-purity metals at rather high temperatures). Such observations in the early 20th century ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ) led to the concept...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... (a) Rock candy appearance from atmospheric stress-corrosion cracking of a high-strength aluminum alloy with equiaxed grains. Original magnification: 130×. (b) Intergranular fracture along the part line of an aluminum forging Fig. 5 Tensile test fracture surface of a high-purity, coarse-grained Al...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... caustic solutions High-nickel alloys High-purity steam Alpha brass Ammoniacal solutions, chloramine, amine Aluminum alloys Aqueous chloride, bromide, and iodide solutions Titanium alloys Aqueous chloride, bromide, and iodide solutions; organic liquids; N 2 O 4 Magnesium alloys Aqueous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... than 540 °C (1000 °F), leaving relatively high residual stresses in the weldments. Metallographic analyses demonstrated that the base metal had a tempered martensitic structure consistent with A302, grade B, steel and that the weld metal had dendritic structures normal for both the shielded metal arc...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Alternately, cleavage across a grain on a single plane would be expected to result in smooth fracture surfaces. Such results are sometimes observed in high-purity single-crystal specimens but are seldom seen in commercial engineering materials. Commercial engineering materials contain both a distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cleavage across a grain on a single plane would be expected to result in smooth fracture surfaces. Such results are sometimes observed in high-purity, single-crystal specimens but are seldom seen in commercial engineering materials. Commercial engineering materials contain both a distribution of inclusions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., where incomplete solidification occurred during the casting process. These defects are common to modern aluminum castings, even high purity castings that undergo hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The presence of these defects throughout the component represent low-energy paths for crack propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to obtain samples for laboratory examination are of utmost importance. For example, if the failure involves rupture of one or more boiler or superheater tubes, there is a high probability that adjacent tubes may have been degraded by the same conditions that led to the ruptures. Samples should be taken from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a metal becomes limited by creep, rather than by elastic limit, must be determined individually for each metal or alloy. Approximate temperatures at which creep behavior begins for several metals and alloys are listed in Table 1 . Low-melting-point metals (such as lead, tin, and high-purity aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... graphite under transfer of metal particles into the “coke” layer Further graphite deposition from the gas phase on these catalytically active metal particles (iron, nickel). Chemical reactions producing such high carbon activities, for example, in reformer applications, are: (Eq 1) Hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... temperatures at which creep behavior begins for several metals and alloys are listed in Table 1 . Low-melting-point metals (such as lead, tin, and high-purity aluminum) can deform by creep at or a little above room temperature. In contrast, refractory body-centered cubic metals (such as tungsten...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... others. The general corrosion behavior of aluminum in high purity water is extremely good. There is minimum general corrosion or gradual thinning of aluminum as may occur with steel. General corrosion has not surfaced as a problem in the storage of aluminum clad alloys at basins in the U.S. as long...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Properties of High-purity Copper . American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers A.I.M.E. ( 1943 ), p 1 to 14 . 17. Camenisch P. : Kupferrohrschäden und deren Vermeidung. Pro Metall 71 ( 1959 ), S. 222 / 24 . Selected Reference Selected Reference • Hydrogen Damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to Casting ” in Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 11 of the ASM Handbook , 2002 ( Ref 29 ). Crystal and grain orientation can produce burr formation and micromachinability variations in high-purity copper with both single-crystal and polycrystalline structures ( Ref 30 ). Even...