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high-modulus graphite fibers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... on properties of plastics. It explains the use of high-modulus graphite fibers in amorphous polymers. high-modulus graphite fibers plastics thermal diffusivity thermal expansion thermal stress ENGINEERING PLASTICS, as a general class of materials, are prone to the development of internal stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... off or pulling out of the reinforcing phase. High-modulus fibers are more effective in wear reduction than the high-strength fibers. Moreover, the higher the modulus of fiber or composite, the less is the wear. The higher the aspect ratio of the reinforcement, the lower is the wear. For a typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to a high modulus and high strength, which increased the load-carrying capacity. In addition, the presence of fillers encourages the transition from a two-body process to a three-body process, and, in this case, the self-lubricating nature of graphite reduces the wear rate ( Ref 34 ), as shown by Fig. 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., such as PE, shows low modulus and low yield stress but very high elongation at break. A hard and brittle material, such as general-purpose phenolic, is characterized by high modulus and low elongation. It may or may not yield before fracture. A hard and strong material, such as polyacetal, has high modulus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...) Compressive strength, MPa (ksi) Up to 2500 (360) Up to 5000 (725) Up to 350 (50) Young’s modulus, GPa (10 6 psi) 15–400 (2–58) 150–450 (22–65) 0.001–10 (0.00015–1.45) High-temperature creep resistance Poor to medium Excellent … Thermal expansion Medium to high Low to medium Very high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials and resins. It explains how absorbed moisture affects a wide range of properties, including glass transition temperature, flexural and shear modulus,creep, stress relaxation, swelling, tensile and yield strength, and fatigue cracking. It provides relevant data on common polymers, resins, and fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., is what gives thermosets a higher average T g than thermoplastics. Thermoplastics with a high T g have stiff, bulky chains and strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between chains. As a function of temperature, the modulus of any viscoelastic material may be generally described by five stages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... converts the linear molecules of PAN-based precursor to a cyclic structure ( Ref 21 – 23 ). After this treatment, the fibers are graphitized at 2000 °C (3630 °F) under an inert atmosphere. During the graphitization process, dehydrogenation and denitrogenating take place. In addition, a change in molecular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polymerized to a high molecular weight. They may be amorphous (polystyrene) or semicrystalline (polyethylene or polypropylene) and are processed into useful shapes using a variety of thermal processes. On the other hand, thermosets are a class of polymers that start out as small molecules (monomers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis • Loading direction may show failure was secondary • Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was secondary• Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper toughness, grain size• Loading direction may show failure was secondary or impact induced• Low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., leads to lower wear rates ( Ref 7 , 10 ). Abrasive wear mechanisms involving plastic deformation, cutting, and fragmentation occur predominantly in materials with relatively high elastic modulus, that is, metals, ceramics, and rigid polymers. As the elastic modulus decreases, the nature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the material can be characterized by the ratio E /σ y where E is the elastic modulus and σ y is the flow stress of the non-work-hardened material. Decreasing E /σ y favors a cutting mechanism, in which a high proportion of material is removed as microchips. Increasing the hardness of the wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for material selection, such as yield stress, hardness, and elastic modulus, are important to consider, but these properties do not always correlate to superior tribological performance. For example, robust and widely used materials such as stainless steel may seem as if they would have more desirable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... backing to increase the heat-flow rate. The third is to reinforce the polymer with a material that has high thermal conductivity, such as carbon fibers, graphite, and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ). The third solution to the thermal problem also offers resistance to cold flow. For these purposes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and abrasive wear, which shows the dependence of wear resistance on hardness. Wear resistance is also influenced by elastic modulus ( E ) ( Ref 42 ), because it is related to atomic bond strength. It should be noted that Eq 4 is inapplicable to erosion when impact (e.g., high-velocity solid-particle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in electronic control and data analysis imply the use of numerous sensors and therefore connectors right next to the engines (automotive, plane, train, etc.). Enduring high-frequency vibrations as well as cyclical thermal loadings, the pin-clip interface experiences fretting wear damage ( Fig. 5 ). Noble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., graphite-fiber-reinforced plastic; PSZ, partially stabilized zirconia. Source: Ref 8 Until the IPD approach is in common use, and as an alternative to the traditional materials-last approach, another method of materials selection is the materials-first approach. The materials-first approach...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Note that values of the modulus of elasticity, E , or shear modulus, G , are temperature and strain-rate dependent. At high temperatures, the viscous flow plays an important role in manufacturing processes and also controls time-dependent behavior, for example, creep behavior. Therefore, fractography...