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high-level waste container materials

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract Failure of a pilot scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of an Inconel 690 (690) jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading. Metallurgical evaluation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract High-level radioactive wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials are kept in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Each of the tanks is equipped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract This paper describes the remote ultrasonic (UT) examinations of a high-level radioactive waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The inspections, carried out by E.R. Holland, R.W. Vande Kamp, and J.B. Elder, were performed from the contaminated, annular space...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... composition, time, and gas composition. High-temperature corrosive environments may include power-generation plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), pulp and paper mills, waste incineration sites, numerous industrial chemical processes, diesel engines (power, land vehicle, and maritime), and gas turbine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... etch A cursory analysis of the gray makeup water and the treated cooling tower water was performed. The cooling tower water contained significantly high concentrations of chloride and sulfate, as well as a high conductivity. Additionally, TTA was below its minimum level. These factors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), took effect [ 3 ]. The RoHS directive restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. It is closely linked with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... is currently being developed in an effort to stabilize the liquid for safe long-term storage. This process is similar to the vitrification process currently being used to stabilize high level radioactive waste at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility. The cylindrical induction melter (CIM) is part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the formation of volatile metal chlorides. If conditions permit, evaporative weight loss can occur due to the high vapor pressures of iron and chromium chlorides. Chlorides accumulate rapidly on metallic surfaces from burning plastic waste. Typical deposits contain 21 to 27% Cl when the flue gas contains 40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... household containers to aircraft components, from high-volume consumer goods to industrial uses. They can be used as raw materials to fabricate threads and yarns used for weaving cloth to be used in the production of clothing and furniture, for high-strength filaments used in outdoor recreation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... emission. A wide range of materials is used in subcritical boilers, especially for boiler tubes. These include carbon steels; low-alloy steels such as T11, T22, and T24; high-alloy ferritic steels such as T91, T92, and HCM12; and austenitic stainless steels such as TP304, TP304H, TP321H, TP347H...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the seawater. Recent studies conducted by Mukhopadhyay and Baskaran [ 8 ] in a recirculating system containing 100 ppb dissolved sulfide confirmed the formation of copper sulfide as a reaction product. This study also confirmed that the dissolved oxygen level was greatly reduced in the presence of sulfides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; the presence of an environment containing ammonia, specifically ammonia from livestock waste, where the munitions were stored; and residual tensile stresses from the manufacturing process, specifically crimping of the casing. Caustic Embrittlement At roughly the same time that season cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... condition, or stress concentrations. These preconditions also can be introduced in many ways by design and/or in conjunction with various production operations such as welding, thermal processing, surface finishing, fabrication, and assembly. Perhaps of greatest concern is the influence of high levels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... wall of a carbon steel oil-sands tailings pipe, which is eroded by slurry-containing fine waste and sand particles suspended in water. Source: Ref 4 . Reprinted with permission from Elsevier. (b) Attack on pump liner in a flue gas desulfurization application. Courtesy of GIW Industries Cavitation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... activity to the basins as the core corrodes. Build-up of this activity in the basin water, if left uncontrolled, can ultimately lead to high radiation levels and exposure to personal working around the basins. Uranium Metal Corrosion An excellent description of classical corrosion of clad uranium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at all heat-flux levels. However, the resistance of a vapor film in steam of low quality is relatively high; therefore, at the onset of film boiling, a large temperature difference between the tube wall and the bulk fluid is required to sustain a high heat flux across the film. The effect of the onset...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Volumetric growth KHR35H HiSi KHRS3 KHRS2 KHR48NCo KHR45A High-temperature corrosion and oxidation (Other, general, or unspecified) distortion Introduction Six rings and two cylinders of material cut from two different furnace rolls were received for analysis in Q4 1996. The rings had been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ○ Keep resin level high in the hopper Intermittent bridging can cause material surging in the extruder and irregular output. Appearance of lines in the extrudate Scratches on the die or webline system scratching the extrudate before vitrification Check that the number of lines is equal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., drinking water supply, pulp and paper making, and other industrial sectors. Microbially induced corrosion is also a concern whenever metals are exposed directly to the environment in applications including marine or buried piping, storage tanks, ships, nuclear waste containers, pilings, marine platforms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Condensate Radwaste Header Residual Charging System Safety Injection System Containment Spray System Residual Charging System Waste Liquids Evaporator System Twelve of the 13 failures were attributed to high-cycle, low-stress fatigue, and one was attributed to multiple stress...