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high-level waste container materials

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract High-level radioactive wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials are kept in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Each of the tanks is equipped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Fig. 1 Tank 15 riser layout sketch Fig. 2 Inspection equipment (P-scan controls, two camera systems, and monitors) Fig. 3 P-scan AMS-1T wall crawler Fig. 4 Explanation of thickness mapping images Fig. 6 Type II high-level waste tank Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... overheating of an Inconel 690 (690) jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading. Metallurgical evaluation revealed the presence of an alloy containing nickel and molybdenum in several...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Committee on Corrosion, 1976 , p 185 36. Elliott P. , Materials Performance in High-Temperature Waste Combustion Systems , Mater. Perform. , Vol 32 , 1993 , p 82 37. Mazur Z. , Kubial J. , and Marino-Lopes C. , Failure Analysis of Gas Turbine Last Stage Bucket Made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... documented that bacteria use phosphorous chemistry in their energy processes [ 4 ]. During a cursory review of the water treatment history, high levels of free chlorine (>0.5 ppm) were present on numerous occasions. When chlorine is added to prevent bacteria growth it combines with copper azole inhibitors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the lattice expansion they push the tin pest transformation temperature to lower levels so that it is not a concern or is kinetically impossible. Several large, tin-plated copper electrical connectors, used in an electric transit system in northeastern US, were subject to analysis. The connectors were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to stabilize the liquid for safe long-term storage. This process is similar to the vitrification process currently being used to stabilize high level radioactive waste at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility. The cylindrical induction melter (CIM) is part of the research program that was undertaken...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... concentrate to high pH levels ( Ref 39 ). The hydroxide solubilizes the protective magnetite layer and reacts directly with the iron: (Eq 4) 4NaOH + Fe 3 O 4 ↔ 2NaFeO 2 + Na 2 FeO 2 + 2H 2 O and (Eq 5) 2NaOH + Fe ↔ Na 2 FeO 2 + H 2 Sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... by Mukhopadhyay and Baskaran [ 8 ] in a recirculating system containing 100 ppb dissolved sulfide confirmed the formation of copper sulfide as a reaction product. This study also confirmed that the dissolved oxygen level was greatly reduced in the presence of sulfides. The formation of copper sulfide, coupled...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be carried out at the scene and must be performed on selected samples taken from the failed equipment. Therefore, the methods used to obtain samples for laboratory examination are of utmost importance. For example, if the failure involves rupture of one or more boiler or superheater tubes, there is a high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the biofilm, where oxygen levels are depleted and metabolite (e.g., organic acid) concentrations may be high. Slime-forming organisms are a recommended target of monitoring programs for cooling water systems ( Ref 37 ) as are iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacteria capable of laying down deposits of metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Lai G.Y. , High-Temperature Corrosion of Engineering Alloys , p 73 – 84 , ASM International , Materials Park, Ohio ( 1990 ) 2. Smith G.D. , Bucklin P.J. , Some observations on the performance of nickel-containing commercial alloys in nitrogen-based atmospheres , Paper No. 375...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... (Caustic embrittlement is also known as caustic cracking. Both of these terms are considered archaic; currently, the term caustic stress-corrosion cracking is used to describe the same phenomenon.) Cracking was observed around rivet holes and other areas of high stress when boiler water contained caustic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nondestructive testing techniques are applicable, what level of metallurgical testing should be performed, and, finally, what quality-assurance documentation is needed. A teamwork approach between the designer and foundry (and, where possible, the ultimate user) is the best (and lowest-cost) method of avoiding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ultimately lead to high radiation levels and exposure to personal working around the basins. An excellent description of classical corrosion of clad uranium is provided by the work done in the late 1950's. 4 For aluminum-clad fuel, once the clad has been penetrated by pitting corrosion, the compounds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... values were compared with both the nominal wall thicknesses for the pipe specifications, and with the ASTM A-53 minimum allowable wall thicknesses. The average wall thickness of the 2-in. pipe was 3.4 ± 0.178 mm (0.135 ± 0.007 in.) at the 95 percent confidence level, while the nominal wall thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 41 ). Severe wear and minor corrosion condition: In this case, mainly high resistance to wear is required, while a certain level of corrosion resistance is also needed. Multiphase materials and composites having high strength with passivation capability can be suitable choices; for example, WC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-level vibration. This suggests that if the intensity of the vibration is below the material's fatigue “threshold” (K th ), fatigue damage does not accumulate in the joint. [1] This K th is a property of the particular material and varies with the metallurgical condition of the material. When cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... solution for two 18-8 stainless steels (AISI types 304 and 304L) and two more highly alloyed stainless steels (AISI types 310 and 314). As indicated by the nearly level portions of the curves, the threshold stress in this environment is approximately 241 MPa (35 ksi) for high-alloy stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... – 1029 ( 2009 ) 10.1016/j.corsci.2009.02.025 15. French D.N. , Metallurgical Failures in Fossil Fired Boilers ( Wiley , New York , 2000 ) 16. Kawahara Y. , High temperature corrosion mechanisms and effect of alloying elements for materials used in waste incineration...