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high-energy-rate forging

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 32 Austenitic stainless steel high-energy-rate forged extrusion. Forging temperature: 815 °C (1500 °F); 65% reduction in area; ε = 1.4 × 10 3 s −1 . (a) View of extrusion showing spiral cracks. (b) Optical micrograph showing the microstructure at the tip of one of the cracks More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... occur internally in impression die forgings but are not common in steel because of its relatively high rate of thermal conductivity. Centerline Bursts (Chevron Cracking) Chevrons are internal flaws named for their shape ( Fig. 8k , 14 ). A central burst, or chevron crack, is most commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that originated in an area of abnormally high hardness. Although fatigue marks were not observed, the fact was that the fracture did not occur in a single cycle but required several cycles to cause failure. Example 2: Fatigue Fracture that Originated on the Ground Surface of a Medium- Carbon Steel Forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the forging preform, which subsequently increased in the final stage. A high upset strain during forging, especially in the final stage, accentuated the center burst by high lateral flow of the metal. It was concluded that the center burst of the axle forging resulted from a high concentration of nonmetallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... roughing die, where it was given a single large deformation at a high strain rate. The partially-formed kingpin was then moved to the finishing die and given a smaller deformation at a slower strain rate. The final piece was trimmed of flash and dropped in a steel bin to cool. It was then reaustenitized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and are particularly evident in overheated copper and forgings (see Fig. 10a ). A Widmanstatten structure is often associated with coarse grains in an overheated steel forging. Two conditions are required for the presence of Widmanstatten structure: namely, a controlled rate of cooling (neither extremely fast nor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... detected by energy dispersive spectroscopy of the fracture surfaces. Although this does not rule out the possibility completely, it is believed that the presence of an embrittling species in the material is unlikely. Preferential Hard Forged Plane A theory was presented by another involved party...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... 1960, and a central bore was required to remove unconsolidated and high-impurity segregated material from the center. This bore also facilitated ultrasonic inspection of the forging volume from the bore side for defects buried near it. Such rotors experience high centrifugal tangential stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... plastic deformation that would induce residual stresses or damage the pipe. One of the failure problems unique to gas pipelines was the potential length of a failure. Because the pressurized gas contains an enormous amount of stored energy and because the energy-release rate upon rupture is often slow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... cold forging die and calculated damage parameters yielding different estimates of tool life and compared with practical data. Falk et al. [ 6 ] showed that damage approaches like local stress, local energy, and volume-based lifetime approach could result in reasonable lifetime predictions. They claimed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A forged 4130 steel cylindrical permanent mold, used for centrifugal casting of gray- and ductile-iron pipe, was examined after pulling of the pipe became increasingly difficult. In operation, the mold rotated at a predetermined speed in a centrifugal casting machine while the molten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., a not-quite-linear correlation was found between the lower yield strength and the number of grains containing twins, leading to the argument that twinning initiates at the yield stress with no further increase in the number of twins. Note that this is different from twinning initiated due to high strain-rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-linear correlation was found between the lower yield strength and the number of grains containing twins, leading to the argument that twinning initiates at the yield stress with no further increase in the number of twins. Note that this is different from twinning initiated due to high strain rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metal droplets deposited on a surface at high velocity; similar structures are intentionally formed by thermal spray coating. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of the metallic portions of the deposit revealed a chemical composition consistent with that of the first-stage blade alloy IN-700...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... loop, the friction energy, E d (J) (i.e., friction work), inputted in the interface can be estimated. Both E d (J) and δ S variables can be considered to quantify the wear rate. Fretting Sliding Condition Most of the research work and industrial feedback emphasize that fretting damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... alloys, nickel alloys, gold, silver, stainless steel, tool steel, and titanium alloys. Of the metals used in AM production, titanium and its alloys are used prevalently for high-value biomedical and aerospace parts. The deposition rate is lower for PBF, but the PBF processes offer better surface finish...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.023 42.5 0.025 39.9 0.026 39.9 0.030 39.0 0.033 38.5 Notch Toughness Notch toughness characterizes a material’s ability to absorb energy during high strain rate loading (i.e., impact). The Charpy V-Notch (CVN) impact test has become the standard for this property. A plot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the core spray injection lines helped to ensure a high level of dissolved oxygen, thus increasing corrosivity with respect to IGSCC. It was further suspected that the axial banding of the delta ferrite stringers in the forged elbow and wedge components contributed to the axial orientation of the cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for Liquid Droplet Impingement Erosion , Ann. Nucl. Energy , Vol 38 , 2011 , p 1279 – 1287 10.1016/j.anucene.2011.02.010 14. Sanada T. , Ando K. , and Colonius T. , A Computational Study of High-Speed Droplet Impact , Fluid Dynam. Mater. Process. , Vol 7 , 2011 , p 329 – 340...