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high-energy-rate forging

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that originated in an area of abnormally high hardness. Although fatigue marks were not observed, the fact was that the fracture did not occur in a single cycle but required several cycles to cause failure. Example 2: Fatigue Fracture that Originated on the Ground Surface of a Medium- Carbon Steel Forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Because of their low density and high potential strength, aluminum forgings are found in automotive and aerospace applications. Like titanium, aluminum is highly strain-rate sensitive. In production with high-strain-rate tools such as hammers and mechanical presses, the rapid delivery of energy can cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-carbon ferrite exist with dispersed high-carbon carbides. Figure 7 shows that for a specific microstructure the Ac 3 increases with heating rate, a consequence of the shorter processing times at the higher heating rates, and the corresponding need to heat the samples to higher temperatures to achieve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... roughing die, where it was given a single large deformation at a high strain rate. The partially-formed kingpin was then moved to the finishing die and given a smaller deformation at a slower strain rate. The final piece was trimmed of flash and dropped in a steel bin to cool. It was then reaustenitized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the intermediate stage of the forging preform, which subsequently increased in the final stage. A high upset strain during forging, especially in the final stage, accentuated the center burst by high lateral flow of the metal. It was concluded that the center burst of the axle forging resulted from a high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...; however, the service temperatures were well below the creep range for high copper alloys (i.e., >150 °C), and no uniform creep voids were observed in the microstructures [ 2 ]. Therefore, this mechanism was considered unlikely and not pursued any further. Slow Strain Rate A journal article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was required to remove unconsolidated and high-impurity segregated material from the center. This bore also facilitated ultrasonic inspection of the forging volume from the bore side for defects buried near it. Such rotors experience high centrifugal tangential stresses at the bore due to High-speed rotation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... operation. For example, if it is suspected that a component was exposed to higher-than-typical temperature, it is useful to compare the rate of base alloy aging with other components of the same type from other turbines. Creep Localized Overheating (Melting) Thermal-Mechanical Fatigue High-Cycle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., a not-quite-linear correlation was found between the lower yield strength and the number of grains containing twins, leading to the argument that twinning initiates at the yield stress with no further increase in the number of twins. Note that this is different from twinning initiated due to high strain-rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-linear correlation was found between the lower yield strength and the number of grains containing twins, leading to the argument that twinning initiates at the yield stress with no further increase in the number of twins. Note that this is different from twinning initiated due to high strain rate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... at damaged surface of failed wear ring. The corrosion rate of nickel in a high-purity nuclear reactor coolant environment containing less than 0.02 ppm dissolved oxygen has been experimentally determined to be about 2.5 to 5.0 µm/year (0.1 to 0.2 mils/year) under dynamic conditions. 13 However...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... swelling. Generally, this condition is harmful only when the tubing material has marginal strength or is stressed to an extent that results in measurable deformation. An instance of improper heat treatment involved a pressure vessel made from forged HY-100 high-strength alloy steel plates that were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of techniques discussed herein is the most commonly used by failure analysts but is by no means exhaustive. The focus of this article is on the various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. Other specialized testing, such as wear testing, dynamic (high-strain-rate) testing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... plastic deformation that would induce residual stresses or damage the pipe. One of the failure problems unique to gas pipelines was the potential length of a failure. Because the pressurized gas contains an enormous amount of stored energy and because the energy-release rate upon rupture is often slow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... temperature and reducing with increasing strain rate. Such behavior is likely associated with billet flow stress, which reduces with temperature and increases with strain rate. High-flow stress results in high die stresses/strains and hence more susceptible to short life. Small die fillet radius severely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... pools, a chloride-rich environment may also develop unintentionally, such as when chlorides leach from some wet or moist insulation material. Process piping and vessels are insulated to minimize temperature variations, improve energy efficiency, and for protection of personnel. Because of the high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... values of this parameter for maraging steels heat treated to various yield strengths and then exposed to aqueous environments are given subsequently in this article, along with a general description of the relationship of the rate of cracking to stress intensity for maraging steels and for other high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... into the mold, beginning at the bell end. The mold continued to spin while moving at a steady rate away from the end of the trough, so that the spigot end of the mold was poured last. After the pipe had cooled to 760 to 870 °C (1400 to 1600 °F), it was pulled out from the bell end of the mold, and the procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... If temporary or permanent repairs, physical modifications, or rating (pressure/temperature) changes are needed Satisfying code and regulatory requirements Good engineering and safe work practice considerations. Current risk to other similar equipment could also be identified. Often, the root cause...