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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... than a somewhat limited opportunity to irradiate small specimens in the beam stop at the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute neutron scattering facility, there is no available high-volume source for high-energy proton beam irradiations because the LANSCE irradiation facility is no longer being maintained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to be a prerequisite for this type of LMIE in all observed cases. Type 4: High-temperature corrosion of a solid metal by a liquid metal causes embrittlement, which is an entirely different problem from types 1 to 3. For the purposes of this Volume, this article summarizes some of the characteristics...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... S4-10 scanning electron microscope operating at 25 kV; energy-dispersive x-ray analysis was performed using a Tracor Northern NS 880 x-ray analyzer attachment. Auger analysis was performed using a Physical Electronics 595 scanning Auger microprobe with a 5 kV electron beam. Varying amounts...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... evaluation of concrete rebar, moisture detection in composites, paint thickness Cannot penetrate conductive metals High-quality imaging can be performed at distance. No ionizing radiation, so harmless to people at common energy levels Paper, plastics, concrete, ceramics, fabrics, wood, paint (a) PT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... While some armors are high strength and distortion will not be observed, others absorb the energy of the projectile by deformation. Again, success or failure is determined by comparison with design expectations. The conservative, classical method of design (assuming monotonic or static loading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... equivalent to a fiber stress just above the tensile strength, as shown in Fig. 4 where the lower curve became essentially horizontal. This collapse load agrees with the limit-analysis collapse load of 1.5 times the load at yield. The beam made of stainless steel, which strain hardens at a rather high rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (and resulting stress waves) can produce circumferential cracks or deformation patterns around the initial area of impact ( Fig. 8a ), depending on the properties of the surface material and the energy of the impact. Following impact, the liquid flows away radially at high velocity. The spreading liquid may hit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (and resulting stress waves) can produce circumferential cracks or deformation patterns around the initial area of impact ( Fig. 8a ), depending on the properties of the surface material and the energy of the impact. Following impact, the liquid flows away radially at high velocity. The spreading liquid can hit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , Chem. Eng. , Vol 93 ( No. 1 ), ( 6 Jan 1986 ) 16. Lai G.Y. , Proceedings in High Temperature Corrosion of Energy Systems , Rutman M.F. , Ed., The Metallurgical Society , 1980 , p 45 17. Verma K.M. , Ghosh H. , and Rai J.S. , Br. Corros. J. , Vol 13...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the substrate is required in LME. Interestingly, the factors that promote the lowest interfacial energy and therefore the best wetting are high mutual solid solubility or intermetallic-compound formation, both of which are generally related to a low degree of LME. The presence of notches or stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to this rule. Generally, only a few chemical species in the environment are effective in causing SCC of a given alloy. The species responsible for SCC in general need not be present in large quantities or in high concentrations. With some alloy/corrodent combinations, temperatures substantially above...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... function is simply to support a load over an open space. In this case, the physical model could be a beam of uniform cross section or truss. In addition, there is not usually a unique solution for implementing a physical concept, although a concept and its function are inextricably linked. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failures, molten salts for energy storage, and degradation and failures in gas turbines. The article describes the effects of environment on aero gas turbine engines and provides an overview of aging, diffusion, and interdiffusion phenomena. It also discusses the processes involved in high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... waves of very high frequency being transmitted through metal and reflected at any boundary such as a metal/air boundary at the surface of the metal, or a metal/crack boundary at a discontinuity within the part or component. High-frequency sound waves can detect small irregularities, but they are easily...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures. The piping system was completely surveyed to ensure that only the specified metal was used. Replacements were made when the wrong metal was found. Fig. 1 A specimen from a low-carbon steel nipple showing fissuring at grain boundaries (top) caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Microstructure and Fracture Properties of Electron Beam Melted, Modified SAE 4620 Steels , Metall. Trans. , Vol 5 , May 1974 , p 1069 – 1085 10.1007/BF02644319 15. Metallography: An Introduction , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 , p 3 – 20...