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high-chromium white irons

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 671 – 699 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543 The chemical composition of the liners was reported to be within specifications for high-chromium white cast iron. The two broken liners were sand blasted for visual inspection and subsequent metallography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract Several deburring drums that fractured were filled with abrasive, water, and small parts, such as roller bearing rollers, and rotated on their axis at 36 rpm. Cracks were discovered very early in the service lives of these high-chromium white iron cast structures. All...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A high-chromium white cast iron shell liner installed in an ore crusher sustained impact damage in the course of operation. Visual-optical examination revealed horizontal cracks on the surface of the liner along with particles that had fractured off. Metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (10 to 0.01 in.) in diameter, both gouging abrasion and grinding abrasion occur. In high-stress grinding abrasion, the microstructure of the balls and liners influences the wear rate. In unalloyed or low-chromium white iron balls, an Fe 3 C-type carbide (Vickers hardness, of 7.8 to 9.8 GPa or 1130...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a duplex microstructure or that are made up of two or more component phases (e.g., a composite-type material, such as a high-chromium white iron, or a composite drill bit, such as diamond or tungsten carbide inserts in a steel matrix), the individual components of which vary in their mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in the nondiscolored region, and these elements are consistent with glass wool. Relatively high levels of chromium and nickel were detected in the discolored area, along with lower amounts of iron, manganese, sodium, calcium, cobalt, and sulfur, in addition to the surrounding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Chromium 0.09 Molybdenum 0.03 Copper 0.55 Tin <0.02 Vanadium 0.05 Iron rem This casting had a carbon equivalent of 3.90. The composition of the cracked casting was: Element Composition, % Carbon 3.25 (a) Manganese 0.61 Phosphorus 0.024 Sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., iron (III) oxides + residual anaerobic corrosion products 2–5 (a) (a) This very high corrosion rate may not be sustained beyond the period of secondary oxidation of the anaerobic site. The presence of a hard, white, calcium carbonate scale is good evidence that effective CP potentials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Recommendations ECCC , Residual life assessment and microstructure , in ECCC , vol. 6 , no. 1 ( 2005 ) 8. Trindade V. , Christ H.-J. , Krupp U. , Grain-size effects on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of chromium steels . Oxid. Met . 73 , 551 – 563 ( 2010 ) 10.1007...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Metal Iron 52 40 1.0 Nickel 35 44 72.0 Chromium 9 11 20.0 Niobium 2 2 2.5 Manganese 2 2 3.0 Corrosion or Wear Deposits Results of analysis of the corrosion products present in some of the cracks are listed in Table 2 . Composition of corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... examination of each type of rupture revealed noticeable swelling of the tubes in the area of rupture ( Fig. 1 ). Relatively slight scaling, probably caused by high-temperature oxidation, was visible on fire-side surfaces, and black deposits and white deposits were found on steam-side surfaces. Subsequent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... material did not meet compositional requirements. The phosphorus and chromium contents were significantly greater than the maximum allowable levels. The excess phosphorus could have possible deleterious effects in terms of embrittlement, whereas high levels of chromium may destabilize the austenite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The processing of taconite iron ore involves grinding, magnetic separation of iron, mixing in additives, pelletizing, and heating the pellets to high temperatures to sinter and harden them (induration). In “acid” pellet production, the additive is bentonite, which serves as a binder to promote green strength...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and the fracture appeared to be related to shrinkage porosity. Chemical analysis of the core showed that the composition corresponded to 3310 steel except for low manganese, slightly high chromium, and lower silicon than would normally be expected in a cast steel. The hardness range of the core conforms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or holes, or burrs may be present that promote cracking in parts. Sometimes the material specified cannot achieve the properties required for the service intended. For instance, a pneumatic chisel made from a high-carbon, high-chromium steel will not achieve as long a service life as a silicon-type shock...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... are usually made from high carbon-high chromium varieties of D2 (1.25 wt% C, 12 wt% Cr) or D4 (2.25 wt% C, 12 wt% Cr) type cold-work tool steels ( Ref 4 ) or of tungsten carbide ( Ref 5 ), second-intermediate roll steel composition is leaner in carbon content for enhanced toughness. It has been reported ( Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the pipe surface. The period of time which is needed for reducing the chromia layer is called incubation time. After the chromia layer diminishes, carburization process or metal dusting attack starts. This process continues by diffusion of carbon on the pipe and forms (chromium, iron) carbide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... rapid corrosion of the inner diameter surface. Atomic hydrogen can diffuse into the metal and combine with carbon from iron carbides to form methane, or with other hydrogen atoms to form molecular hydrogen. These large gas molecules become trapped and produce very high localized stresses, leading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in cold-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... steels • Brownsword R. et al. , Studies of Wear in High-Speed Steel Tools , ISI P126 , Iron and Steel Institute , London , 1971 , p 38 – 42 • Doyle F.D. , Effect of Different Heat Treatments on the Wear of High Speed Steel Cutting Tools , Wear , Vol 27 , 1974 , p 295...