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high-carbon bearing steels

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of these elements. Rolling-element bearings, whether ball or roller bearings, are fabricated from a wide variety of steels. Conventionally, bearings have been made from both high-carbon (1.0%) and low-carbon (0.2%) steels; the high-carbon steels are used in through-hardened condition, while low-carbon steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... casting, and brittleness of the high-hardness HAZ of the weld associated with the abnormally high carbon content in the central part of the channel. Welding of channel edges contributed to harmful gradients in section moduli and should be avoided in future assemblies. Brackets Flanges Heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-Höchst M. , Very High Cycle Fatigue Properties of Bainitic High Carbon-Chromium Steel , Int. J. Fatigue , Vol 31 ( No. 2 ), 2009 , p 242 – 249 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2008.09.001 104. Hollox G.E. , Hobbs R.A. , and Hampshire J.M. , Lower Bainite Bearings for Adverse...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... oxides present, apparently from chemical attack (cleaning, etching) after failure. The steel supplier showed using high resolution Wavelength Dispersive Microanalysis (WDS) that the carbon level in the matrix surrounding the sulfide inclusions was as high as 0.7% in an area examined on crank #1, pin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0048592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of failure. Specifications for the threaded fasteners in the assembly called for 3 8 -24 UNF, SAE, grade 8, hexagon-head cap screws made of medium-carbon alloy steel, quenched and tempered to a hardness of 32 to 38 HRC and a minimum tensile strength of 1034 MPa (150 ksi). Fig. 1 Drive-line...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to a temperature above the melting point of the brass journal bearing and must be under a stressed condition. Experiments were performed with 13-mm ( 1 2 -in.) diam medium-carbon steel, loaded as cantilever beams. Samples heated to 925 °C (1700 °F) ran for hours without failure at 1750 rpm. However...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... was examined for the first time 2 . Photomicrographs taken of the fracture showed a distinct copper phase present on the fracture surface. The recommendations of this study were to properly lubricate the axle to avoid high temperatures and overheating the bearing. In 1947 a study on copper penetration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... from the balls/groove wear or from some other source. The material of the inner and outer races and balls was T1 (tungsten high-speed steel). The high alloying and high carbon content produced a large number of hard, wear-resistant carbides in the microstructure [3] to achieve high hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., but softening set in at high frequencies because of the temperature rise. In some investigations, notably those described in Ref 48 and 49 , the formation of a white etch-resistant layer has been detected in fretting of carbon steels ( Fig. 21 ). This material is extremely hard and tends to develop...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the bearing (conforming to specifications for 100C6 steel) Table 2 Chemical composition of the outer ring, inner ring, and balls of the bearing (conforming to specifications for 100C6 steel) Elements Weight, % Outer ring Inner ring Balls Carbon 1.00 1.01 1.03 Manganese 0.32 0.31...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Rollover accidents in light trucks and cars involving an axle failure frequently raise the question of whether the axle broke causing the rollover or did the axle break as a result of the rollover. Axles in these vehicles are induction hardened medium carbon steel. Bearings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the corners of the outer ring and grew large enough for a fracture to occur. cylindrical roller bearing fatigue fracture grease degradation bearing steel leaded brass retained austenite Raman spectroscopy thermogravimetric analysis chemical composition GCr15 (high-carbon chromium-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... the solution. A more thorough analysis showed failure was caused by tube vibration. In a third case, a type 304 stainless steel bellows in a test loop was thought to have failed because of chloride stress corrosion. The report concluded with a recommendation that carbon steel be used as an alternative bellows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The high-strength bolt was commonly used in Germany by the automotive industry. Chemical analysis Table 1 Chemical analysis Element Recommended analysis per DIN 267 ( Ref 1 ) Specified analysis for AISI 4140 Specified analysis for 42 CrMo 4 Carbon 0.19 to 0.52 0.38 to 0.43 0.38...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... assembly. drive shaft bearing cup brittle fracture heat treatment carbon steel shallow case endurance and load testing fracture toughness SAE-AISI 1117 (11xx resulfurized steel) UNS G11170 Introduction The automobile is a typical industrial product that involves a variety of materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of tribological transformed structure, or TTS). Adapted from Ref 42 . Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Fig. 16 Comparison between metals and ceramic coatings fretted against an alumina ball for similar lading conditions. HSS, high-strength steel. Adapted from Ref 42 Fig. 17...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., the core structure showed satisfactory tempered martensite with a uniform distribution of numerous tiny globular carbides in the matrix, typical of a high-carbon chromium ball bearing steel. Fig. 3 Low-magnification optical micrograph of a section across the crater zone, showing the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., chemical vapor deposition, and thermal spraying (TS). It provides a background to RCF in bearing steels in order to develop an understanding of failure modes in overlay coatings. The article describes the underpinning failure mechanisms of TiN and diamond-like carbon coatings. It presents an insight...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-carbon alloy steel. (a) Drive-line assembly showing fractured components. (b) Fracture surface of one of the two cap screws showing beach marks typical of a fatigue-type fracture. 4×. (c) Fracture surface of the other failed cap screw showing beach marks typical of high-stress reversed-bending fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 0.4 mm (0.015 in.) thick on steel 69 10,000 (a) Fatigue strength of bearing materials was determined under laboratory conditions of excellent alignment, excellent oil flow, a high degree of cleanness, ideal clearance, and normal operating temperature of 80 to 105 °C (180 to 220 °F). Normal...