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high-alloy iron

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand molds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A high-chromium white cast iron shell liner installed in an ore crusher sustained impact damage in the course of operation. Visual-optical examination revealed horizontal cracks on the surface of the liner along with particles that had fractured off. Metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... alloy formation. Even in the case of steel parts with lower silicon contents the reaction between iron and zinc can continue until the pure zinc layer has been consumed entirely if the work piece is not cooled sufficiently after withdrawal. Coating defects Galvanized steels Hot dip galvanizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of internal oxidation is, in the case of Ni-Cr alloys, known as green rot. Alloys containing iron should be more resistant. As a preventive measure it was recommended to reduce the operating temperature of the strip sufficiently to allow the use of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys. Electric heating elements Resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such environments are oxidizing. Increasing iron in the alloy increases its susceptibility to nitridation attack. Titanium and aluminum are also detrimental to nitridation attack ( Ref 18 ). Carbon-Nitrogen Interaction This type of high-temperature interaction can be found in centrifugally cast furnace tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract A die-cast zinc adapter used in a snowthrower failed catastrophically in a brittle overload manner. The component had a chemical composition similar to standard zinc alloy ZA-27 (UNS Z35840), although the iron content was much higher and the copper slightly lower. The mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and/or aluminum to form a protective layer of chromium or aluminum oxide (Cr 2 O 3 or Al 2 O 3 ) scale to resist oxidation and other forms of high-temperature corrosion. These oxide scales are slow growing. When an alloy is under sulfidation attack, sulfides of chromium, iron, and nickel are likely to form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... This happened in a calendaring machine in which a heavy cast iron calendar roller (of about 9 tons as reported) is supported at two ends by two copper alloy bearings. The failure occurred when a replacement bearing was installed at the end of the normal service life of the original one, which lasted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... and heat exchanger tubes. The resistance of these alloys is due to the formation of protective films which are reinforced in the presence of iron [ 2 ]. However, the poor resistance of C70600 to salt water high in sulfides has been documented [ 3 ]. Iron is also known to shift the immunity potential toward...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Discussion NAB alloys are known for their excellent corrosion and cavitation resistance, which allows them to be extensively used in numerous seawater applications as impellers, propellers, tubing, etc. NAB alloys have 5–12% aluminum and up to 6% each of nickel and iron. The NAB’s UNS designation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-alloy carbon steel spheroidization SEM backscattered electron analysis microstructural transformation T12 (chromium-molybdenum low-alloy carbon steel) Introduction Low-alloy CrMo carbon steels, such as T12, T22, and T23, are widely used as high-temperature economiser tubes (e.g., waterwall...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals and alloys in both emf and galvanic series are the same. An exception is the position of cadmium with respect to iron and its alloys. In the emf series, cadmium is cathodic to iron, but in the galvanic series (at least in seawater), cadmium is anodic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract In a HyL III heat exchanger's radiant pipes, metal dusting reduced the pipe thickness from 8.5 to 3 mm in just nine months, leaving craters on the inner surface. The pipes are fabricated from HK 40 alloy. The heated gas (400 to 800 deg C) consisted of CO, CO2, and H2, with a 4:1 CO/CO2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., it is a list of metals and alloys arranged according to their relative potentials in a given environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals and alloys in both emf and galvanic series are the same. An exception is the position of cadmium with respect to iron and its alloys. In the emf series, cadmium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and HBr. The final gas composition was metered into the mullite tube using electronic flow controllers at a total flow rate of 500 cm 3 /min (30.5 in. 3 /min). The metal loss data after 300 h of exposure are shown in Table 3 . Metal loss tended to increase with temperature. The high-iron alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that could have contributed to the fractures. Conclusions Brittle fracture of the teeth of the gray iron gear resulted from high-impact loading that arose from the sudden starts and stops of the compressor. During subsequent rotation, fragments broken from the gray iron gear damaged the mating ductile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...: modification of the processing parameters to reduce the salt deposition and / or change of bar materials to a more resistant alloy. Castings Fluxing Fused salts Hot gas corrosion Ironmaking Pelleting Sintering furnaces HH UNS J93503 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Background...