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heterogeneous nucleation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Microscopy Jewelry 1 and 2 presented intense superficial linear irregularities ( Fig. 2 a and 3a ), which possibly acted as nucleation points for localized corrosion ( Fig. 2b ). Jewelry 3 did not present superficial irregularities but showed the presence of etched areas ( Fig. 3b ). Jewelry 5...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... processes also occur in alloys and heterogeneous materials. However, alloying and commercial production practices introduce segregation, inclusions, second-phase particles, and other features that disturb the structure, and these have a dominant effect on the crack-nucleation process. In general, alloying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article focuses on characterizing the fracture-surface appearance at the microscale and contains some discussion on both crack nucleation and propagation mechanisms that cause the fracture appearance. It begins with a discussion on microscale models and mechanisms for deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concepts. bending brittle fracture compression failure deformation ductile crack nucleation ductile fracture ductility fractography manufacturing imperfections metals microvoid coalescence notched specimen plastic flow root cause failure analysis single-crystal cleavage models specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that occur during creep testing affect properties. Although such changes may be unavoidable, in many cases, thermomechanical processing schedules can be established to influence the changes so that they tend to strengthen the material or minimize the overall effect. For example, if a heterogeneous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to strengthen the material or minimize the overall effect. For example, if a heterogeneous precipitate is formed during creep, a simple heat treatment or cold work followed by annealing prior to testing should yield a homogeneous distribution of precipitates. Microstructural changes due to the combined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the end of life must be defined and limited. The conventional design methods are supplemented by the fracture mechanics methods, in which cracklike flaws in the structure are anticipated and included in the design. These methods have all contributed to a better understanding of fatigue crack nucleation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that is spanned by plastic microfibrils, typically oriented in the direction of applied stress. The width of a craze is of the order of 1 to 2 μm, and it may grow to several millimeters in length, depending on its interaction with other heterogeneities. Being dilatational, crazes grow normal to the applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is the point at which a crack is first nucleated. It usually coincides with the location of the maximum principal tensile stress or the minimum material resistance to fracture. Strictly speaking, because neither a uniform distribution of stress nor material homogeneity exists throughout an engineered component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mode is understood to be subsurface stress concentrations (e.g., nonmetallic inclusions). The increased stress near these stress concentrations leads to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, which are then able to propagate during subsequent cycles. Historically, this was the cause of the vast majority...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... by the addition of platelike fillers, which increase the distance that a permeant such as water must travel in order to pass completely through the plastic. In heterogeneous systems, such as the immiscible polymer blends ABS and HIPS, each phase typically has a different refractive index, so if the phases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... boundary area per unit volume decreases. This results in lesser number of potent sites available for nucleation of ferrite and pearlite. Thus, the transformation of austenite into softer phases (i.e. ferrite-pearlite) is slowed down with the increase in the tendency for martensitic transformations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces. Fig. 1 General features of fatigue fractures. Initiation of Fatigue Initiation of fatigue in common components made of commercial alloys occurs at—and is dominated by—material and geometric heterogeneities. Sites fostering fatigue crack initiation include inclusions, second phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... tolerance Reproducible and reliable quality-control techniques As with all fabrication processes, the brazing process also has distinct limitations ( Ref 4 ). A brazed joint is not a homologous or homogeneous body but rather is heterogeneous. The joint is composed of different phases with differing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Initiation of Fatigue Initiation of fatigue in common components made of commercial alloys occurs at—and is dominated by—material and geometric heterogeneities. Sites fostering fatigue crack initiation include inclusions, second-phase particles, voids, machining marks and other surface flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... by a change of volume, crazing will occur when local stress concentrations cause microscopic voids to form due to surface defects, precreated notches, molecular heterogeneity, internal air bubbles or dust, and/or the presence of contaminants in the specimen. Several authors have attempted to identify...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the prediction of erosion of power-plant pipelines as well as leading-edge erosion on turbine blades under the influence of surface roughness. For this to be done, further knowledge must be obtained about the wear of materials, such as structural heterogeneity, deformation processes, and the nucleation processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the surface layer, which makes the surface more anodic. Plastic deformation originates from nucleation and movement of dislocations. Local strain energy in the vicinity of dislocations increases ( Ref 20 ) the local reactivity together with elevated electron activity reflected by lowered electron work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , A General Critical–Strain Criterion for Crazing in Amorphous Glassy Polymers , Philos. Mag. Vol 28 , 1973 , p 547 – 559 10.1080/14786437308221002 35. Argon A.S. , Role of Heterogenities in the Crazing of Glassy Polymers , Pure Appl. Chem. , Vol 43 , 1975 , p 247 – 272 10.1351...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... cannot identify the maximum damage plane where cracks tend to nucleate. A modification of the critical plane parameter ( Ref 70 ) for neat thermoplastics was used to correlate the multiaxial fatigue data in the literature. The results showed desirable correlations based on fiber orientation, mean stress...