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heterogeneous nucleation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Wrought cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloy ISO 5832-12 Pure tantalum for applications in surgical implants ISO 13782 Jewelry 1 and 2 presented intense superficial linear irregularities ( Fig. 2 a and 3a ), which possibly acted as nucleation points for localized corrosion ( Fig. 2b ). Jewelry 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... processes also occur in alloys and heterogeneous materials. However, alloying and commercial production practices introduce segregation, inclusions, second-phase particles, and other features that disturb the structure, and these have a dominant effect on the crack-nucleation process. In general, alloying...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that occur during creep testing affect properties. Although such changes may be unavoidable, in many cases, thermomechanical processing schedules can be established to influence the changes so that they tend to strengthen the material or minimize the overall effect. For example, if a heterogeneous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such changes may be unavoidable, in many cases, thermomechanical processing schedules can be established to influence the changes so that they tend to strengthen the material or minimize the overall effect. For example, if a heterogeneous precipitate is formed during creep, a simple heat treatment or cold work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on characterizing the fracture-surface appearance at the microscale and contains some discussion on both crack nucleation and propagation mechanisms that cause the fracture appearance. It begins with a discussion on microscale models and mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concepts. bending brittle fracture compression failure deformation ductile crack nucleation ductile fracture ductility fractography manufacturing imperfections metals microvoid coalescence notched specimen plastic flow root cause failure analysis single-crystal cleavage models specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the end of life must be defined and limited. The conventional design methods are supplemented by the fracture mechanics methods, in which cracklike flaws in the structure are anticipated and included in the design. These methods have all contributed to a better understanding of fatigue crack nucleation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., typically oriented in the direction of applied stress. The width of a craze is of the order of 1 to 2 μm, and it may grow to several millimeters in length, depending on its interaction with other heterogeneities. Being dilatational, crazes grow normal to the applied tensile component of the stress field...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ≤0.020 ≤0.015 1.26 0.8 0.24 Filler metal 0.10 0.18 0.87 ≤0.020 ≤0.015 1.31 0.87 0.25 Residual stresses are often introduced unintentionally during fabrication—for example, during welding or heat treatment. In weld joints, they arise as a consequence of the heterogeneous application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the component. The origin of this failure mode is understood to be subsurface stress concentrations (e.g., nonmetallic inclusions). The increased stress near these stress concentrations leads to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, which are then able to propagate during subsequent cycles. Historically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nucleation at the surface. Cyclic damage can also accumulate at grain boundaries, particularly at elevated temperature or under conditions that cause grain boundary embrittlement, and at twin boundaries. Design and testing aspects of fatigue are discussed in more detail elsewhere, such as in Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... As with all fabrication processes, the brazing process also has distinct limitations ( Ref 4 ). A brazed joint is not a homologous or homogeneous body but rather is heterogeneous. The joint is composed of different phases with differing physical and chemical properties. In the simplest, and most common case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., Fatigue Fracture Appearances , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 11, ASM Handbook , ASM International, 2002, p 627–640 Initiation of fatigue in common components made of commercial alloys occurs at—and is dominated by—material and geometric heterogeneities. Sites fostering fatigue crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of power-plant pipelines as well as leading-edge erosion on turbine blades under the influence of surface roughness. For this to be done, further knowledge must be obtained about the wear of materials, such as structural heterogeneity, deformation processes, and the nucleation processes of wear sites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from the surface and introduces plastic deformation in the surface layer, which makes the surface more anodic. Plastic deformation originates from nucleation and movement of dislocations. Local strain energy in the vicinity of dislocations increases ( Ref 20 ) the local reactivity together...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4