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heavy-metal contamination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... caustic attack that led to ruptures in areas of high stress. The escaping steam eroded the outer surface of the tube causing heavy loss of metal around the rupture points. boiler tubes stress rupture caustic corrosion carbon steel oxide scale deposits punch marks inductively coupled plasma...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... where corrosion reactions result in the production of atomic hydrogen. Heavy deposits can act as concentration sites for oxygen and acid forming contaminants. When a low-pH (acidic) condition is present, hydrogen is generated during rapid corrosion of the internal surface. The hydrogen atoms diffuse...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the fracture surface. Fig. 1 Overall view of fracture surface. ∼0.2×. Fig. 2 Closeup view of areas A and A'. Note dark and light regions. Pipes and blowholes are present as weld defects. ∼0.5×. Fig. 3 Corner section. Heavy grinding marks on the weld metal were exposed after the paint...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or plated. The plating or paint must be removed without changing the composition of the underlying metal. While this may be done relatively easily with paint on a heavy steel component by burning off the paint, this burning may alter the composition of a very light gage material. A solvent paint removal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... are deposited on the component surfaces or when oxides growing on the component surfaces incorporate activated metallic ions dissolved in the coolant. As a result of this process, the radioactive contamination present on the surfaces of nuclear reactor cooling-circuit components typically consists...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., chloride, stress-corrosion cracking. Replacement decisions were based on the presence of SCC attack or heavy corrosion deposits indicative of extended exposure time to chloride-contaminated water. The existing uncracked pipe, about 75 percent of the piping in the system, was retained despite the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Cracking occurred in an ASME SB166 Inconel 600 safe-end forging on a nuclear reactor coolant water recirculation nozzle while it was in service. The safe-end was welded to a stainless-steel-clad carbon steel nozzle and a type 316 stainless steel transition metal pipe segment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... analysis of the waterwall tubes showed evidence of hydrogen damage, associated with heavy deposits and localized, underdeposit corrosion. Heavy deposits can serve as concentration sites for oxygen and acid-forming contaminants. When acidic or basic (low or high pH, respectively) conditions are present...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the first two downstream convolutions to repair the area where leakage occurred. Heavy deposits of carbon were found on the inner walls of the convolutions and on the back side of the reflector sleeve. The reflector was intended to prevent contaminants from reaching the inner walls of the convolutions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are: Tin-base or lead-base babbitts or white metals: These materials are good for embedding hard contaminant particles and for resistance to galling, but fatigue quickly. Lead alloys also corrode readily Copper-lead alloys: These are superior to the white metals for corrosion resistance in many...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Nickel anodes failed in several electrolysis cells in a heavy-water upgrading plant. Dismantling of a cell revealed gouging and the presence of loosely attached black porous masses on the anode. The carbon steel top, plate was severely corroded. An appreciable quantity of black powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the ability to embed hard contaminant particles, resist corrosion (as well as galling), and survive even though they may be made to poor tolerances or may be operated with occasional lubricant starvation or without maintenance. Such metallic bearings are manufactured by casting or by conventional machining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Factors which may lead to premature roller bearing failure in service include incorrect fitting, excessive pre-load during installation, insufficient or unsuitable lubrication, over-load, impact load vibration, excessive temperature, contamination by abrasive matter, ingress of harmful...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An investigation of the impeller and deposit samples from a centrifugal compressor revealed that an aluminum IR-12 refrigerant reaction had occurred, causing extensive damage to the second-stage impeller and contaminating the internal compressor components. The spherical surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the transferred material, which may permit continued operation. The transferred metal appears as a bright fracturelike patch. One cause of sliding is hardening of grease lubricant due to deterioration or contamination by dirt or other foreign matter. As a result of hardening of grease, rotation of the balls...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the electrochemical nature of corrosion and analyzes corrosion-related failures. It describes corrosion failure analysis and discusses corrective and preventive approaches to mitigate corrosion-related failures of metals. These include: change...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... corrosion products on surface. Specimen Selection Several corroded grate bars were carefully removed from a grate box and packaged in plastic bags to avoid contamination and loss of surface scale. The bars were examined metallographically and by using electron microscopy. Chemical and X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel may be a sign of iron contamination. Heavy deposits on a tube, such as scale or corrosion product, could be caused by overheating. Visual examination will indicate the direction of further work; the detailed investigation should be planned at this stage. Care must be taken so that evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of a metallurgical failure analysis is to determine the root cause of failure. Whether dealing with metallic or non-metallic materials, the root cause can normally be assigned to design, materials, manufacturing, and/or maintenance problems. Often, several adverse conditions also contribute to the failure process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to excessive high temperatures ( Fig. 23 ). Fig. 23 Rosettes in 3003 aluminum wire Contamination Metals become more reactive at higher temperatures, absorbing oxygen and other contaminants into the surface. This alters the composition as well as the properties of the surface layer. The alpha...