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heat-transfer coefficient

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface is a second convective heat-transfer mode. The steam-side heat-transfer coefficient is a function of fluid velocity, viscosity, density, and tube bore diameter. Boilers in service for some time have a fourth component to the heat-flow path: internal scale or deposits. Steam reacts with steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... but accepted as a consequence of materials selection. Third, at the fluid interface with the inside-diameter surface is a second convective heat-transfer mode. The steam-side heat-transfer coefficient is a function of fluid velocity, viscosity, density, and tube bore diameter. Boilers that have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and the excessive heat generated by the friction welds the surfaces at the contact points. As the surfaces separate, the metal is torn and transferred between the surfaces. For this reason, scuffing involves various damage mechanisms, such as mechanical, chemical, metallurgical, and thermal reactions ( Ref 26...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or not the frictional heat dissipation is isothermal or quasi-adiabatic. Isothermal heat dissipation can change the mechanical property of the interface zone as opposed to the quasi-adiabatic, which affects only the transfer layer normally present at the true interface. The chemical-wear mechanism is initiated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer thermal energy between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between a solid particulate and a fluid at different temperatures. This article first addresses the causes of failures in heat exchangers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... Czupryk W. : “Frictional Transfer of Iron in Oxidative Wear Conditions During Lubricated Sliding,” Wear , 2000 , 237 , pp. 288 – 94 . 5. Sadykov F.A. , Valitor V.A. , and Barykin N.P. : “The Influence of Deformation Heat Treatment on Structure and Wear Resistance of CuZnPb...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... plants of compact construction and having therefore high fluxes through heat-transfer surfaces. These desuperheaters consist of steel tubing submerged in the water of the steam drum. Superheated steam, at 950 F in most of these power plants, enters one end of the tubing and, during its passage, transfers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... failures, and commentary on component design and fabrication strategies to mitigate fatigue damage and improve damage tolerance are provided. For example, fabrication practices such as postweld heat treatment, improving surface finish, and blend grinding weld toes can significantly improve fatigue life...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... abrasion is said to exist when loose particles are trapped between rubbing solids. They become momentarily fixed in the rubbing process to produce scratching but may also roll in the interface to produce material removal by adhesive transfer to the loose particle. Adhesive transfer or adhesive wear almost...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the failures of heat exchangers. chemical analysis corrosion corrosion fatigue cyclic stress heat exchangers mechanical test microscopic examination selective leaching stress-corrosion cracking tubing visual examination welding HEAT EXCHANGERS are generally used to transfer heat from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of thermal stress . Heat Transfer Symposium , University of Michigan Engineering Research Institute , pp. 9 – 75 ( 1953 ) 9. White F.M. : Heat and Mass Transfer . Addison-Wesley ( 1988 ) 10. Touloukian Y.S. : Thermophysical Properties of Matter , vols. 12 and 13 . IFI Plenum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of polymers. If polymers are used at high speeds, the surfaces may melt and possibly be squeezed out from the sides. There are three solutions to improve effective heat transfer and avoid thermal problems. One is to operate the bearing with a low contact pressure and at a low speed. The second is to lay...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear situations, the white layer in one body can be entirely made up of material transferred from the second body. Subsurface regions form on both impacting bodies and grow very quickly, within a few hundred impacts ( Ref 8 ). Once formed, the white layer and the deformation zone maintain a steady...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to a reduction in flexibility at this point, and, in the case of a mining rope, can cause jolting when this part of the cable passes onto the winding drum. In steam generators and heat exchangers, flow-induced vibration results in fretting between the tubes and the supports or baffles through which they pass...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the polymer, the friction coefficient (μ) and the extent of frictional heating reduce, leading to less damage to the polymer, filler, and their adhesion. This generally results in less wear. The nature of transferred film on the counterface plays a key role in controlling wear performance of a composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperatures between surface and core Atmosphere control Quenching factors Quench temperature Reduces temperature gradients by providing slower quench Results in lower distortion Quench agitation Provides uniform heat transfer across all surfaces of the parts Provides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nonuniform and nonsymmetrical heat transfer during heating and cooling. Component design characteristics that are common to distortion and cracking problems include ( Ref 22 , 23 ): Parts that are long, with thin cross sections. Long and thin parts are defined as those greater than L = 5 d...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., considerable surface damage occurred due to adhesive transfer of metal, which ceased at pressures above 0.1 Pa (1.5 × 10 −5 psi) ( Ref 66 ). As the pressure was increased further, the coefficient of friction fell to a value of ∼1.0 at 10 Pa (1.5 × 10 −3 psi), whereas the wear remained low up to this pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be entirely made up of material transferred from the second body. Subsurface regions form on both impacting bodies and grow very quickly, within a few hundred impacts ( Ref 11 ). Once formed, the white layer and the deformation zone maintain a steady-state configuration as more impacts occur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Original magnification: 180× Welding Problems In the fabrication of pressure vessels, welding problems, such as brittle cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), often result from the use of steels containing excessive amounts of residual alloy elements that increase hardenability...