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heat-recovery steam generators

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Heat-recovery steam generator More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Alloy 430 stainless steel tube-to-header welds failed in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) within one year of commissioning. The HRSG was in a combined cycle, gas-fired, combustion turbine electric power plant. Alloy 430, a 17% Cr ferritic stainless steel, was selected because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., hotels, restaurants, and office buildings use boilers for generation of steam and/or hot water. Likewise, there are boilers termed as heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs) and kraft-recovery boilers. As the HRSG name indicates, the waste heat released by the exhaust gases or hot air from combustion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... industries to drive other machinery, to generate electricity, or to generate electricity and produce steam as in a combined cycle where the system incorporates a gas turbine, steam turbine, and heat recovery steam generator. These applications cover the utility industry (combustion turbines) as well as ship...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... µohm. All of these chemistry parameters significantly exceeded nominal conditions that should be present in the steam. Visual Examination of General Physical Features Examination of the tubing removed from the superheater bank confirmed an extensive crack net-work stemming from a longitudinal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and pressure vessels that constitute the steam-generating portion of the system. With very few exceptions, failure of pressurized components is confined to the relatively small-diameter tubing making up the heat-transfer surfaces within the boiler enclosure. Overheating is the main cause of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... exchangers are used to transfer heat from/to combustion gases and steam or water to/from gases, vapors, or liquids of various types where, for example, the effluent is used to heat the incoming stream or external water cools the reactant steam. A great variety of heat-exchanger designs have been used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... conclusions were reached: The Port Neal explosion occurred in the following sequence: AN in the neutralizer tank, which had been sensitized by nitric acid, chloride, and other contaminants was steam heated continuously for 9.5 hours during the shut down. Decomposition of the heated, contaminated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for steam turbine rotors/discs, carbon and alloy steel components in boilers Residential and industrial water-delivery systems: Stainless steel PEX clamps (described earlier) and brass components General Characteristics of Stress-Corrosion Cracking The phenomenological characteristics of SCC...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... values of this parameter for maraging steels heat treated to various yield strengths and then exposed to aqueous environments are given subsequently in this article, along with a general description of the relationship of the rate of cracking to stress intensity for maraging steels and for other high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to as erosion-corrosion. The detrimental effects of erosion have caused problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and water walls ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ), steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and waterwalls ( Ref 2 – 16 ), steam turbines ( Ref 17 – 19 ), land-based gas turbines ( Ref 20 – 22 ), solids-transport systems ( Ref 16 , 23 – 27 ), cyclones ( Ref 16 , 27 – 29 ), valves...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...× Carbides, for example, MC, form in steel when carbon combines with reactive elements, such as titanium, tantalum, hafnium, and niobium. During heat treatment and service, the MC carbide can decompose and generate other carbides, such as M 23 C 6 , which tends to form along the grain boundary. Carbide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or steady-state creep). Secondary, or second-stage, creep is an equilibrium condition between the mechanisms of work hardening and recovery. A constant but relatively low creep rate characterizes this stage. This constant or steady-state creep rate generally is the minimum creep rate and is widely used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of creep-related failures, where the mechanical strength of a material becomes limited by creep rather than by its elastic limit. The majority of information provided is applicable to metallic materials, and only general information regarding creep-related failures of polymeric materials is given...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article briefly reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including discussion on mixed-mode cracking. Factors associated with overload failures are discussed, and, where appropriate, preventive steps for reducing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... occur when an overload failure is caused by a combination of ductile and brittle cracking mechanisms. It describes the general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article discusses some of the material, mechanical, and environmental factors that may be involved in determining the root cause...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of typical locked-coil track strand wire rope construction. In steam generators and heat exchangers, flow-induced vibration results in fretting between the tubes and the supports, or baffles through which they pass. In the past, this phenomenon appears to have been a particular problem in the nuclear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... contaminated (radioactive) environments, tight quarters, stringent quality controls on nuclear safety-related piping, and the need to remove and reinstall insulation and heat tracing cables. In addition, the replacement could have extended the unit refueling outage. Had this been necessary, the increased...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and preventing stress relaxation due to heat dissipation generated during sectioning. Always protect the gages from coolant contact (particularly if the coolant is conductive) with epoxy, lacquer, or equivalent coatings (see strain gage manufacturer's recommendations). Monitor (in real-time) the variation...