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heat treatment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... records that the ring had been removed for hydrotest and welded without any postweld heat treatment. The final cause of failure was concluded to be cracking that developed during the installation of the new shroud ring. Stress-relief heat treatments were recommended to be performed to reduce residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... austenitized. Displacement of metal on the outer raceway was revealed by elongation of grain structure. It was concluded that the failure of the raceway surface was due to incomplete austenitization caused by the improper heat treatment during flame hardening process. Antennas Austenitizing Bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... fatigue that initiated at the notch created by the intersection of the faying surfaces of the clip and shell with the spot weld nuggets. The 6061 aluminum alloy shell and stiffener were in the annealed (O) temper rather than T6, as specified. Recommendations included heat treating the shell and stiffener...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... crosses had been subjected to an induction-heating stress improvement-induction heating the outer wall of the pipe to 550 to 600 °C (1020 to 1110 °F) maximum for a maximum of 12 min while the inside is cooled with water. This treatment leaves a residual tensile stress on the outer surface and a residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A number of machined end frame steel forgings made of Cr-Si-Mn alloy showed tiny cracks during magnetic particle inspection after heat treatment. The cracks were mostly confined to base edges and fillet radius. No significant abnormality was observed in chemical composition and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... welded joints in wrap tests. The welded wire was annealed by resistance heating. The wire ends had a chisel shape, produced by the use of sidecutters. Tests of the heat treatment temperatures showed that the wire near the weld area exceeded 775 deg C (1425 deg F). Metallographic examination revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A preflight inspection found a broken diaphragm from a side controller fabricated from 17-7 PH stainless steel in the RH 950 heat treatment condition. Failure occurred by cracking of the base of the flange-like diaphragm. The crack traveled 360 deg around the diaphragm. Scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... had received a postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Metallographic examination revealed that the corroded areas contained undertempered martensite. Fully tempered weld areas with a hardness of 93 HRB were not attacked. No evidence of corrosion fatigue was found. Uneven temperature control during PWHT was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Door-closer cylinder castings manufactured of class 30 gray iron were breaking during machining. The manufacturing source reported that a random sampling of castings from this lot had hardnesses from 180 to 210 HRB. Based on the color of the components, heat treatment of these castings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... inspection, 0.7x/50x images, hardness testing, reheat treatment, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that failure was by progressive SCC that originated at a stress concentration. Also, the solution heat treatment had been either omitted or performed at too high of a temperature, and the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A thick-walled tube that was weld fabricated for use as a pressure vessel exhibited cracks. Similar cracking was apparent at the weld toes after postweld stress relief or quench-and-temper heat treatment. The cracks were not detectable by nondestructive examination after welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... causes for the defects were reported based on previous investigation of heat treatment facilities. Oxide layer was caused by inadequate purging of air before carburization while decarburization was attributed to defects in the copper plating applied to the gear for its protection during austenitizing in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... structure suggests that the austempering heat treatment was performed too close to the nominal martensite start temperature. Recommendations included raising the austempering salt-bath temperature 56 deg C (100 deg F) to account for localized compositional variation. Austempering Lawn mower blades...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... Thimbles were to be made of cast 8625 steel, but no heat treatment or hardness were specified. Analysis (visual inspection, hardness testing, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that the wear was due to strikingly difference hardness measurements in the bolt and thimble...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... potential was too high, which resulted in a microstructure having excessive retained austenite after heat treatment. Recommendations included modifying the composition of the carburizing atmosphere to yield carburized parts that did not retain significant amounts of austenite when they were heat treated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... before tempering. Microscopic examinations of ethereal picral etched sections indicated that the cracks appeared before or during the final tempering phase of the heat treatment and that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before its 315 deg C (600 deg F) snap temper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... were within the HAZ of the adjacent weld deposit. The heat of welding had generated a coarse-grain structure with a weak grain-boundary network of ferrite that had not been corrected by postweld heat treatment. The combination of the cracks and this unfavorable microstructure provided a weakened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... (visual inspection, chemical analysis, tensile testing, unetched 65x and 1% nital etched 65x magnification) supported the conclusions that the steel was too soft for the application – probably due to improper heat treatment. Fracture of the equalizer beams resulted from growth of mechanical cracks that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... comparatively short journal pins at high stresses. This crankshaft fracture was an example of the damage that is caused or promoted neither by material nor heat treatment mistakes nor by defects of design or machining, but solely by overstressing. Crankshafts Induction hardening Torsional fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... the steel, forging the shape, and preliminary heat treatment; and (3) a supplier that provided induction hardening, finish machining, and inspection. An independent engineering firm was subsequently involved, but because each party had its own agenda, there was no agreement on the metallurgical source...