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heat transfer

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in which failure took place was 50.8 mm in diam with a nominal wall thickness of 8 mm. It connected to the AISI 321 superheater tube by means of a butt weld and was one of 46 such parallel connecting tubes. The Cr-Mo tubing was situated outside the heat transfer zone of the superheater. The overall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... sites for local pitting bursting. Nonuniform heat transfer in Stage 3 operation accelerated the selective corrosion of front-end tubes. The relatively high heat transfer in this stage resulted in condensation of some corrosive gases and consequent corrosion. Continuous operation of the plant with some...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... A as the heat transfer fluid. Design conditions are based on annular fluid flow to cool the coil wall. NDE, metallographic and fractographic examinations were performed. Numerous, circumferentially oriented, OD initiating cracks were found near the crown for two coils near the non-fired end of the vaporizer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... on the fire-side surface of tubes situated in zones exposed to radiant heat where high rates of heat transfer pertain. In most instances, a large number of adjacent tubes are found to have suffered, the affected zone frequently extending in a horizontal band across the boiler. In some instances, pronounced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and pressure vessels that constitute the steam-generating portion of the system. With very few exceptions, failure of pressurized components is confined to the relatively small-diameter tubing making up the heat-transfer surfaces within the boiler enclosure. Overheating is the main cause of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Schedule 80 low-carbon steel pipes used to transfer kraft liquor in a Kamyr continuous pulp digester failed within 18 months after installation. Visual and metallographic examinations established that the cracking initiated on the internal surfaces of the equalizer pipes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A type 316 stainless steel pipe reducer section failed in service of bleached pulp stock transfer within 2 years in a pulp and paper mill. The reducer section fractured in the heat-affected zone of the flange-to-pipe weld on the flange side. The pipe reducer section consisted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fracture by cleavage. The crack followed the heat-affected zone of a welded joint connecting a rectangular hollow section member and a plate flange. The main factors contributing to failure were related with a combination of design-in and manufacturing-in factors like high load-strength ratio at the point...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract Chain link, a part of a mechanism for transferring hot or cold steel blooms into and out of a reheating furnace, broke after approximately four months of service. The link was cast from 2% Cr austenitic manganese steel and was subjected to repeated heating to temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of construction, it was considered that the cracking in this particular case was due principally to the inordinately large gap between the components. This would lead to a reduction in the rate of heat transfer from the furnace ring to the water and that portion of the furnace ring immediately adjacent to the air...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... locally to create a layer of low-alloy steel between the handle and the weld metal. This low-alloy zone had sufficient hardenability to form martensite when mass quenched by heat transfer to the cover. Failure was due to brittle fracture. A brittle martensite layer in the weld was the result of using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... ) and dilution steam are added to the feed in order to reduce coke formation on the internal surfaces of the furnace tubes and thus increase the run length of the furnace between decoking operations. Coke formation is detrimental to the operation of the furnace since it hampers the heat transfer from the furnace...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... above or below. The deposits which are 50–100 times more likely to occur in high heat-transfer areas [ 2 ] can result in overheating of the tube because the thermal conductivity of the deposits is low. The caustic corrosion involves the corrosive interaction of sufficiently concentrated sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the inside of the tube is expected to further hinder heat transfer. The net result is a temperature rise in the tube wall to a level that can exceed design limits. A plot of maximum allowable stress versus service temperature ( Fig. 15 ) suggests that the yield strength of the tubing decreases rapidly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... 2 O, leaves the reformer furnace, waste heat is extracted by the production of steam within the waste heat boiler. If the reformer furnace is operating at lower temperatures, an internal bypass can be throttled open to reduce overall heat transfer. This bypass is protected by the alloy 800 liner...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... and loadings); a photomicrograph showing intergranular attack; and a two-part conclusion attributing failure to stress corrosion and recommending that type 440C should not be used in the application. Stresses The deposits that normally develop on heat exchanger tube surfaces can affect heat transfer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...) were expected to be reached only to a very shallow depth on the interior surface in the hottest portions of the main body of the chamber, because of the high heat-transfer rate across the 8-mm (0.3125-in.) thick wall. Spectrographic analysis showed that the material of the chamber corresponded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... provide a major source of electricity. The heat-transfer surface in the HRSG consists of finned tubes connected to upper and lower headers ( Fig. 1 ). The headers carry water or steam that is heated by the CT exhaust gas flowing over the finned tube harp assemblies ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 1 Heat-recovery...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... downshocks might cause the damage pattern that was found. A transient heat transfer and thermal-stress analysis was performed with numerical methods and software identified as CREPLACYL and with material data taken from the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Materials Handbook (U.S. Department of Energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of internal laminations constitutes an objectionable feature in the plates of vessels where heat transfer through the plates is required, particularly in the furnace rings of shell boilers. The laminations form an interruption to the heat path and instances are on record where overheating of the fireside...