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heat generation

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Heat-recovery steam generator More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The cause was grinding damage; the nitrided layer was ground too rapidly causing excessive heat generation which induced grinding cracks ( Fig. 2 ) and grinding burn ( Fig. 3 ). Regrinding was not performed. Tensional stresses resulting from grinding developed in a thin surface layer. Fig. 1 Typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The self-powered flux detectors used in some nuclear reactors are Pt or V-cored co-axial cables with MgO as an insulator and Inconel 600 as the outer sheath material. The detectors are designed to operate in a He atmosphere; to maximize the conduction of heat (generated from...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 14 An example of burnup with plastic flow in a tapered-roller bearing. This type of failure may result from loss of lubrication or gross overload. The damage begins as heat generation followed by scoring, and if the lubricant is not replenished or the load reduced, the excessive heat More
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
; T m , minor exotherm peak temperature associated with accelerator effects; T exo , major exotherm peak temperature; T f , final temperature, indicating the end of heat generation and completion of the cure More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Alloy 430 stainless steel tube-to-header welds failed in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) within one year of commissioning. The HRSG was in a combined cycle, gas-fired, combustion turbine electric power plant. Alloy 430, a 17% Cr ferritic stainless steel, was selected because...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the fire-extinguisher case was the result of ferrite streaks that were formed when the metal was overheated. The initial forming temperature of the case plus frictional heat generated during spinning resulted in extreme overheating and some localized melting. Recommendations The temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the spot as type 630 stainless steel. Microscopic examination revealed that the built-up metal was welded to the cone. Microhardness readings on the unaffected carburized case and on the case beneath the galled area indicated that the heat generated by galling had resulted in localized tempering...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of service, multiple leaks were observed in the heat-exchanger tubes. Investigation supported the conclusion that the corrosion occurred at two general locations: the stop point of the welds used to connect the inlet and outlet legs of the heat exchanger, and the stop points on the identifying numerals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and crankshaft-bearing failures. The ferrite caps (burrs) can shear the lubricating oil film. Also, the burrs can actually penetrate the bearing-insert material. In either case, the net result is failure of the crankshaft and crankshaft-bearing insert interface due to heat generation or physical damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was severely melted back from the main circuit breaker connection, and the plastic case of the circuit breaker was badly eroded from heat generated at the connection terminal. The case erosion was sufficient to inhibit circuit breaker operation. The service panel, located in the basement, had reportedly been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in a bearing can cause the race to spall, which roughens the ball path and introduces debris into the bearing. This can eventually lead to smearing of the balls and to heat generation. An analysis was conducted to determine the cumulative fatigue damage that the bearing pair sustained over its operational life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A pair of steam generators operating at a pressurized water reactor site were found to be leaking near a closure weld. The generators were the vertical U-tube type, constructed from ASTM A302 grade B steel. The shell material exhibited high hardness values prior to confirmatory heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Residual stresses Steam generators Tube components Tubes Inconel 600 UNS N06600 Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A steam generator is a key component used in the generation of steam in a closed-cycle pressurized-water nuclear power plant. It is essentially a large heat exchanger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A power plant using two steam generators (vertical U-tube and shell heat exchangers, approximately 21 m (68 ft) high with a steam drum diameter of 6 m (20 ft)) experienced a steam generator tube rupture. Each steam generator contained 11,012 Inconel alloy 600 (nickel-base alloy) tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., undoubtedly generated unacceptably high levels of residual stress in the HAZs. The cold working of the internal surface in a sizing operation also set up residual stresses in areas apart from the welds. Both conditions were conducive to SCC. Sensitization: The high heat input welding caused precipitation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Some of the admiralty brass tubes were failing in a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger cooled air by passing river water through the inside of the tubes. The wall thickness of all tubes ranged between 1.19 to 1.27 mm (0.047 to 0.050 in.). General intergranular corrosion occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... locally, and the structural condition suggested that the tube in general had been heated at a lower temperature of the order of 600 deg C (1112 deg F) for some appreciable time. In this instance, overheating of the tube in the absence of the copper deposits may not have led to failure. Boiler tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Background A food manufacturer uses SO 2 vapor generated in a heat exchanger ( Fig. 1 ) as part of a processing step. The heat exchanger is approximately 0.45 m in diameter and 2.5 m tall. The SO 2 liquid enters the heat exchanger approximately 28 cm from the bottom tubesheet. A sketch of the heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... experienced in mine haulage ropes. For such applications, therefore, roping steel wires contain higher than 0.70% carbon. However, in applications such as trawl warps used in fishing, the type of wear inevitably results in generation of local heat, and hence high-carbon wire is more prone to the formation...